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1ImpactsIdahoNationalLaboratoryResearchDevelopmentNuclearLeadershipCollaborationsUniversityCollaborativeModelNewCapabilitiesScienceEngineering DirectorJanuary2013TheUSDepartmentofEnergysnationallaboratoriesplayacrucialrolebyconductingthetypeofresearchinnovationtestingandevaluationthatisbeyondthescopeofregulatorsacademiaorprivateindustryaloneIdahoNationalLaboratorysengineeringexpertiseandappliedsciencecapabilitiesareparticularlyfocusedondeploymentoftechnologiesfornuclearenergynationalsecurityandnewenergyresourcesAbroadarrayofinfrastructurenuclearmaterialinventoryandvastexpertiseconvergeatINLthenationsnuclearenergylaboratoryIntheseandotherareasINLusesthesecapabilitiestoinnovateevaluateanddeploynewtechnologiesthathelpprotectthenationsresourcesandadvanceenergysecurityProductivepartnershipswithacademiaindustryandgovernmentagenciesalsohelpdeliverhigh-impactoutcomesThiseditionofINLsImpactsmagazinehighlightsournewestleadershipeffortscapabilitiescollaborationsandresearchaccomplishmentsPleasetakeafewminutestolearnmoreaboutthecriticalresourcesandtransformativeinnovationsatoneofthenationspremierapplied-sciencelaboratoriesFROMTHEDisclaimerThisreportwaspreparedasanaccountofworksponsoredbyanagencyoftheUnitedStatesGovernmentNeithertheUnitedStatesGovernmentnorBattelleEnergyAlliancenoranyoftheiremployeesmakesanywarrantyexpressedorimpliedorassumesanylegalliabilityorresponsibilityfortheaccuracycompletenessorusefulnessofanyinformationapparatusproductorprocessdisclosedorrepresentsthatitsusewouldnotinfringeprivatelyownedrights.ReferenceshereintoanyspeciccommercialproductprocessorservicebytradenametrademarkmanufacturerorotherwisedoesnotnecessarilyconstituteorimplyitsendorsementrecommendationorfavoringbytheUSGovernmentoranyagencythereofTheviewsandopinionsofauthorsexpressedhereindonotnecessarilystateorreectthoseoftheU.S.GovernmentoranyagencythereofReferencetothetermPartnerinthisReportshouldnotbeconstruedasalegalrelationshiportheexistenceofalegalentityEditorNicoleStrickerGraphicartistsKristineBurnhamDavidCombsPhotographerChrisMorganOnthecoverTheSophiasoftwaretoolhelpsdefendindustrialcontrolsystemnetworksagainstcyberattackbymakingiteasierforoperatorstondandinvestigateanomaliesthatmaythreatensecurityMoreonpage10JohnGrossenbacherDirectorIdahoNationalLaboratory 1ContentsNuclearLeadershipCollaborativeeffortsfortheEnergyDepartmentsOfceofNuclearEnergy4EnergyNationalSecurityHighlightsofmultiprogramenergyandsecurityinnovations10CollaborationswithNewpartnershipswithindustryacademiaandagenciesbothinternationalanddomestic14NewCapabilitiesUniquetest-bedandappliedscienceinfrastructureenhancements20AdvancingTechnologyInnovationsinnuclearenergyresearchandinfrastructureglobalandenergysecurity24UniversityCollaborativeModelHighlightsfromtheCenterforAdvancedEnergyStudiesatINL38TABLEOF 2INLFutureINLBUILDINGABRIGHTTheU.S.todayfacesanumberofnationalchallengesrelatedtoenergysecurityinfrastructuresecurityandcybersecurity.TheDepartmentofEnergyDOEmultiprogramnationallabsareespeciallysuitedtofindsolutionsthatmaybetooriskyorcomplexforindustryacademiaorregulatorstotacklealone.IdahoNationalLaboratoryINLisdistinctwithintheUSnationallaboratorycomplexforitsstrongfocusonengineeringandappliedscienceExceptionalexpertisestrategicpartnershipsandagrowingone-of-a-kindtestinginfrastructureconvergeheretocreateanincubatorthathelpsnewideasmaturetowardthemarketplaceSincethelabsfoundingastheNationalReactorTestingStationitsalwaysfocusedontestinganddemonstrationthathelpsreducerisksassociatedwithdeployingnewconceptsforlarge-scalereal-worlduseTodayINLhoststestbedsfortechnologyrangingfromwirelesscommunicationstobiofuelsfeedstockprocessingMostofthenationalresearchcapabilitiesthatareuniquetonuclearenergyresideatINLthenationsnuclearenergylaboratoryConsiderINLsskilledpersonnelandextensivepartnershipsandapictureemergesofanationalresourcecapableofaddressingmyriadcurrentandfuturenationalchallenges 3ForexampleINLdevelopedanadvancedmodelingandsimulationplatformthathasfundamentallychangedhowscientistsapproachsuchworkThetechnologyisnowusedby25nationallabsuniversitiesandprivatecompaniestoinvestigatetoughquestionsinnuclearenergymaterialssciencegeologyandotherdisciplinesThisyeartheleaddeveloperbecametherstINLresearchertoearnaPresidentialEarlyCareerAwardforScientistsandEngineersSuchworkillustratesthethoughtleadershipINLprovidestothenationandtheDOEByrecruitingthebestexpertsintheireldsandcapitalizingonoursystemsengineeringexpertiseINLoffersbig-pictureinsightsExamplesinthepagesthatfollowillustrateINLsleadershiprelatedtonuclearenergyaswellasnationalsecurityandadvancedenergysystemsProductivecollaborationsalsounderliesuccessandnumeroussuccessfulpartnershipsfromthepastyeararehighlightedSimilarlyINLisbuildingonitsgeographyandphysicalinfrastructurethroughongoingenhancementofstate-of-the-arttestingandevaluationcapabilitiesAddingtoINLsmomentumisanewleadershipteamoverseeingthelabsscienceandtechnologyresearchasmallsamplingofwhichisdescribedintheAdvancingTechnologysectionFinallyachievementsfromtheCenterforAdvancedEnergyStudiesanunprecedentedpartnershipbetweenINLandIdahospublicresearchuniversitiesillustratehowINLishelpingredenetherelationshipbetweenfederalandstateinstitutionsOverallthissnapshotofrecentachievementsillustrateshowINLresearchinnovationtestingandevaluationishelpingapplynewenergysolutionstosafelysecurelyandsustainablyadvancenuclearenergysafeguardinfrastructureexpandenergysupplyandimproveefciency.AkiraTokuhiroUniversityofIdahoprofessorofmechanicalandnuclearengineeringtalkswithgraduatestudentMarkAlbistonattheCenterforAdvancedEnergyStudiesatINL. 4TechnicalleadershipIn2009INLworkedcloselywiththeDOEsOfceofNuclearEnergyDOE-NEandledateamofnationallaboratoriestodeveloptheNuclearEnergyResearchandDevelopmentRoadmapTheroadmapservesasafoundationoftheNuclearEnergyResearchDevelopmentandDemonstrationRDDprogramandabalancedplanofresearchaimedataddressingkeychallengestonuclearenergyviabilityINLinputandexpertisecontinuetohelpDOE-NEdeveloparesearchstrategyconsistentwiththisroadmapTheNationsNuclearEnergyLabINLhasledafundamentalshiftintheDOEapproachtonuclearresearchanddevelopmentattheDepartmentofEnergysnationallabsuniversitiesandwithinregulatoryandpolicyorganizations.Thelabisleadinganapproachthatcombinesphysicaltheoryadvancedmodelingandsimulationandsmall-scaleexperimentsthattestfundamentalconcepts.Whenengineering-scaleirradiationtestingorlarge-scaledemonstrationsarenecessarythisapproachimprovesefficiencyandreducesuncertainty.LeadershipNUCLEARManyfolkshereinIdahoplayedakeyroleinhelpingusshapetheobjectivesonthatNuclearEnergyRoadmap.PeterLyonsDOEsassistantsecretaryforNuclearEnergyFromINLsonsettheTechnicalIntegrationOfceTIOconcepthashelpedintegrateDOE-NEresearchacrossnationallaboratoriesuniversitiesandindustryenablingkeylinkagestotheinternationalresearchcommunityUsingresidentcapabilitiesunderthreetechnicalintegrationofcesINLemergedasaleaderinareasoffueldevelopmentseparationsresearchandwasteformdevelopmentsystemsanalysisriskandsafetyanalysisanddemonstrationofreactorandfuelcycletechnologiesInFY2012DOEexpandedtheINLtechnicalintegrationroletoincluderadioisotopepowersystemsandtheemergingareaofusedfuelRDDThisinitiativewillbecomeincreasinglyimportantasindustryandregulatorsexaminethetechnicalbasisforlong-termstorageofusedfuelandwastecondence.AdvancedmodelingandsimulationIntheyearsincethismagazinerstdescribedtheMOOSEsimulationplatformMulti-physicsObjectOrientedSimulationEnvironmentithasgainedbroadnationalrecognitionandalargeuserbaseamongforefronteffortstodevelopamassivelyparallelcomputationalframeworkMOOSEhasallowednuclearfuelsandmaterialsscientiststodevelopnumerousMOOSE-basedapplicationsthatpredictthebehavioroffuelsandmaterialsunderoperatingandaccidentconditionsBISONMARMOTPEREGRINERAVENGrizzlyRattleSnakeFoxandPronghornallaremembersoftheMOOSEherdmoremodelingandsimulationonpp1924 5TheseapplicationssupportthecommercialindustryandmultipleresearchprogramsforDOE-NEincludingtheConsortiumforAdvancedSimulationofLWRstheFuelCycleRDcampaigntheLightWaterReactorSustainabilityprogramtheReducedEnrichmentforResearchandTestReactorsprogramandeffortstodevelopfuelswithenhancedaccidenttoleranceInshortMOOSEanditsherdofapplicationshaveprovidedasignifcantearlysuccessforDOE-NEsAdvancedModelingandSimulationprogramOtherMOOSEapplicationshelptacklenon-nuclearquestionssuchasthoseassociatedwithcarbondioxidesequestrationorenvironmentalremediationofchemicalspillsRAThigh-temperaturesuperconductivityCondorandengineeredgeothermalsystemsFALCONmoreonpg36TheMARMOTapplicationdevelopedbyMichaelTonksrightmodelsmicrostructuralchangesthatnuclearuelundergoesduringfssion.MARMOTrunsontheMOOSEsimulationplatormdevelopedbyDerekGastonletandothers. 6LightWaterReactorSustainabilityAnumberoftheMOOSEapplicationssupporttheDOEsLightWaterReactorSustainabilityLWRSprogramForexampleINLisleadingworktoenableamoreaccuraterepresentationofanuclearpowerplantssafetymarginTheprogramsRisk-InformedSafetyMarginCharacterizationPathwayisdevelopingatoolkitthatincludestheMOOSE-basedapplicationsRAVENPeacockandGrizzlyTheGrizzlyapplicationforexampleaimstoprovidepreciseinformationabouttheagingofcomponentssuchasreactorpressurevesselsandtheimpactofthatagingonsafetymarginsINLleadstheLWRSprogramsTechnicalIntegrationOfceTIOandthreeofthefourtechnicalpathwaysPlanningexecutionandimplementationoftheLWRSprogramarecoordinatedwiththenuclearindustrywiththeElectricPowerResearchInstituteasamajorpartnertheNuclearRegulatoryCommissionuniversitiesandrelatedDOERDprogramsInJanuary2012theTIOissuedanIntegratedProgramPlandescribingtheprogramsobjectivestechnicalplansandinterfaceswithindustrypartnersandotherDOEprogramsNuclearseparationsPartoftheDOEsFuelCycleTechnologyresearchprogramfocusesontheprocessingofusednuclearfuelintouseablematerialandstablewasteformsThisyeartheDOE-NESeparationsandWasteFormscampaignunderwentanextensiverelevancyreviewbyapreeminentpanelofindependentexpertsNASAsCuriosityroverlandedsuccessfullyonMarsandhasbeencollectingdataandsendingbackimagesthankstoitsnuclearheatandpowersystemwhichwasassembledandtestedatINL.ThisyeartheDOEdesignatedINLsStephenJohnsontoleadthenewlyestablishedTechnicalIntegrationOcefortheDOEsOceofSpaceandDefensePowerSystems.LeadershipNUCLEARCONT. 7ThereviewcommissionedbyDOEsdeputyassistantsecretaryforFuelCycleTechnologyalsoincludedanassessmentofprogresstowardestablishingascience-basedapproachtonuclearseparationsresearchTheconceptisnovelandafterexpressinginitialskepticismastowhetherthiswasPeterZalupskiwhoreceivedINLsEarlyCareerExceptionalAchievementAwardinFY2012researchesadvancedmethodsforrecyclingvaluablecomponentsfromusednuclearfuel.ThepanelconcludedthatthecampaignhadanoutstandingprograminplacewithrelevantRDactivitiesyieldingmorethan500publicationsillustratingresults-orientedworkofcampaignmemberscontributingfromacrosstheDOEcomplexWeareimpressedbythecaliberandbreadthoftechnicalmanagersandresearchersthatareinvolved.Youhaveengagedthetoppeopleinthecountryinallareasofwork.Inshorttheprogramisingoodhands.RelevancyReviewPanelSeparationsandWasteFormCampaignpossiblethepanelconcludedthatthescience-basedapproachwasachievingsuccessFinallythecreationofsigmateamsisenhancingcollaborationsbetweennationallabsonseparationandwasteformgrandchallengesTheseteamsbeganshowingmomentumandpromisethisyearUsedfuelhandlingEstablishingastrongtechnicalbasisforsafeandsecurestorageandtransportationofusednuclearfuelisessentialforthesustainabilityofnuclearpowergenerationThisyearINLhelpedDOE-NEdevelopanewRDDplanforUsedFuelStorageandTransportationTheplanoutlinesscience-basedactivitiesidentiesfacilitiesandresourcesneededtoclosetechnicalorknowledgegapsandsummarizesactivitiesnecessarytoassurehighcondenceinsafeandsecurelong-termstorageandtransportationINLalsoworkedwiththeUsedFuelDispositionCampaignthisyeartoestablishanewelementforelddemonstrations. 8Next-generationtestreactorThecostsassociatedwithmaintainingDOEtestreactorsandconvertingthemtouselow-enricheduraniummaymakeitpracticaltoconsiderbuildingasinglenewresearchreactorINLworktodesignanext-generationtestreactorishelpingleadsuchadiscussionattheDOEDesignsbelowforMATRIXMultipleApplicationTestReactorforIrradiationExperimentsaimtoaccommodatethediverseresearchneedsoftheDOEsmanycurrentcustomersTocreateareactorthatcouldalsouselow-enricheduraniumthedesignteamisworkingintandemwiththeINLexpertsdesigningsuchfuelsLeadershipNUCLEARCONT.NuclearHybridEnergySystemsAugust2012CapabilityDevelopmentPlanLIMITEDDISTRIBUTIONDistributionofthisdocumentislimitedtotheU.S.DepartmentofEnergyandtheIdahoNationalLaboratoryunlessauthorizedbytheNSTorEESTALDs.NuclearHybridEnergySystemsThepotentialforsustainableuseofnuclearfossilandrenewableresourcescouldbeexpandedthroughhybridenergysystemsLinkingnuclearfossilandrenewableenergysystemscouldmakemoreefcientuseofexcessheatandelectricitythatgotowastewhensystemsareoperatedinisolationThisyearINLledthecreationofaNuclearHybridEnergySystemsCapabilityDevelopmentPlanwhichwasissuedtotheDOEinAugust2012TheplandescribesdevelopmentofcomputationaltoolsintelligentmonitoringandcontrolsanduserinterfacesnecessarytoadvancedeploymentofthesesystemsItalsooutlinesave-yearapproachtowarddemonstrationthatwouldinvolvecollaborationswithsisternationallabsmorehybridenergyonpp1235 9EnhancingaccidenttoleranceDecember2011congressionalappropriationlanguagedirectedDOE-NEtodevelopnuclearfuelsandcladdingwithenhancedaccidenttoleranceThisenabledDOE-NEtoexpandthefuelcladdingdevelopmentitwasalreadydoingundertheLWRSprogramSuchfuelswouldbeabletotoleratelossofactivecoolinginthereactorcoreforaconsiderablylongertimewhilemaintainingorimprovingperformanceduringnormaloperationsandabnormaleventsINLhelpeddraftaDOEroadmapfortheresearcheffortandhasstrategicleadershipofDOEsFuelCycleRDAdvancedFuelsCampaignwhichissettingtheRDDdirectionforfuelswithenhancedaccidenttoleranceINLworkedwiththecampaigntoorganizeatwo-dayOctoberworkshoptobeginestablishingsuccessmetricstoquantifydesiredattributesandassociatedconstraintsforfuelswithenhancedaccidenttoleranceLINECommissionINLhelpedleadthecreationandexecutionofIdahosLeadershipinNuclearEnergyLINECommission.Thecommissionischargedwithmakingrecommendationstothegovernoronstatepoliciesandactionstosupportandenhancethelong-termviabilityandmissionrelevanceofINLandthestatesbroadernuclearindustry.INLLabDirectorJohnGrossenbacherchairsthetechnologysubcommitteeandseniorINLleaderssitonthreeoftheotherfoursubcommittees.Thecommissiondeliversitsfinalreporttothegovernorin2013.Next-generationtestreactordesignsfarleftneedtoaccommodatemanyDOEcustomers.MembersoftheIdahogovernorsLeadershipinNuclearEnergyLINECommissionabovetouredINLnuclearresearchfacilities.IdahoNationalLabhasbeeninstrumentalandimportantinthehealthofnuclearenergyinourcountryandworldwide.Goingforwardthatimportancedoesntdecreaseinfactitincreases.MarvinFertelNuclearEnergyInstitutepresidentandCEOintestimonytoIdahosLINECommission 10SecurityENERGYANDNATIONALSecuringcontrolsystemsINLdevelopedtheSophiasoftwaretohelpnetworkoperatorsdetectanomaliesthatmaythreatencontrolsystemsrunningthenationsutilitiesandotherinfrastructureThesoftwarepassivelymonitorsnetworkcommunicationpathwaysandpatternssoitcanalertoperatorstounusualactivityThelabsextensiveexpertiseevaluatingcybervulnerabilitiesforindustrygavedevelopersinsightintotheneedforsuchatoolwhichistherstofasuiteindevelopmentatINLDozensofenergysectorcompanieshelpedbetatesttheSophiasoftwareandINLisnowworkingtotransitionittoindustrymorecybersecurityonpp1830MultiprogramcapabilitiesINLisamultiprogramnationallabthatsupportsnationalsecurityandnewenergysolutions.INLsisolatedsitetestbedinfrastructureandappliedsciencefocusareidealforexperimentationassessmentsanddemonstrationsthathelpdeploynewtechnologytoprotectthenationsresourcesandcriticalinfrastructure.TheSophiacybersecuritysotwarecanbeloadedrightintotheComputerAssistedVirtualEnvironmentCAVEatINLwhereco-developerGordonRuefabovedemonstratesitseatures. ProtectingthegridSolarstormswhicharepredictedtobecomemorefrequentin2013caninducegeomagneticcurrentsthatcandamagetheelectricpowergridTheDefenseThreatReductionAgencyhiredINLtotestacommerciallyavailablemitigationstrategythatcanthwarttransformerdamagefromsuchstorms.Thattesttherstsuchfull-scaletestonalivetransmissiongridevaluatedmitigationsunderdifferentloadandcurrentconditionsCollectingthistypeoffull-scaleobjectivetestdatavalidatesmodelsandadvancesthenationsunderstandingofhowtoprotectthegridfromthesesignicantphenomena.INLcanperformsuchunbiasedanalysisusingitsdistinctivegrid-testingcapabilityThelaboperatesa61-mile138-kVdual-fedpowerloopcompletewithseveralsubstationsPortionsoftheutility-scalepowerloopcanbeisolatedforindependentfull-scalereal-timetestingThiscapabilityenablesawidearrayoftestingthatcanhelpindustryandregulatorsworktowardamoresecureandresilientelectricalgridWirelessspectrumsharingINLinnovationinwirelesscommunicationsreceivednationalandinternationalrecognitionviathreeawardsforatechnologydescribedinthispublicationlastyearTheWirelessSpectrumCommunicationsWSCommtechnologyidentiesandutilizesavailablespacesintheradiofrequencyspectrumAuniquemethodforspreadingthetransmissionsignalenablesitsreceivertoavoidfrequencyspectrathatareplagued11withinterferenceThetechnologyaddressescontinuedcommercialexpansionwhilesimultaneouslyservingtheneedsofnationalsecuritypublicsafetyandothercrucialnext-generationcommunicationsystemsDevelopedinpartincollaborationwithUniversityofUtahresearchersitwonanRD100AwardaFarWestFederalLaboratoryConsortiumawardandanIdahoInnovationAwardSafeguardingnuclearmaterialBuildinguponcoreexpertiseinnuclearfuelandciviliannuclearenergytechnologiesINLhasgrownintoaleadingworldresourceforsecuringandsafeguardingnuclearmaterialThelabsexpertscollaboratewithothernationallaboratoriesindustryandacademiatodevelopenhancedproliferation-resistantreactorandfuelcycledesignsandsafeguardsinstrumentationINLalsoprovidesuniquefacilitiesmaterialsandtechnicalexpertisetosupportglobalnuclearsecurityactivitiesthenationaltechnicalnuclearforensicscommunityandthetrainingofnuclearemergencyrst-responsepersonnelatthelocalstatetribalandnationallevelsAsaresultINLisbecomingrecognizedasacenterfornonproliferationandglobalsecuritytechnologyresearchdevelopmentdemonstrationanddeploymentNewcollaborativeprojectsdevelopmentanddeploymentofsafeguardstechnologiesanduniquedetectiontechnologieshaveledtothisrecognitionTheseeffortsarehelpingachievenationalandDOEobjectivesforenablinginternationalsafeguards 12SecurityENERGYANDNATIONALAdvancingenergysystemsHybridsystemsthatpairtwoormoreenergysourcescouldyieldnumerousenergysecuritybenefts.INLhasstrategicallyledhybridenergysystemconceptswiththedevelopmentandapplicationofhigh-performancedynamicmodelingandothercomputationaltoolsaswellassystemdevelopmentanddemonstrationusinghardware-in-the-loopINLalsohasbuiltcollaborationsanddescribedavalidationplanSuchworkbooststhelabsrecognitionasakeyproviderofscienceandtechnologytohelpsolveenergysecuritychallengesINLhasestablishedcollaborativeagreementswiththeDOEsNationalRenewableEnergyLaboratorytheChineseAcademyofSciencesthestateofWyomingGeneralElectricandtwonuclearreactortechnologydevelopmentcompaniesThesepartnershipsenableINLtoleveragethetestingcapabilitiesofNRELWyomingsSchoolofEnergyResourcesandprivateindustrytovalidatecomponentsofhybridenergysystemsINLstestingcapabilitieswillhelpbetterunderstanddevelopdemonstrateanddeployhybridenergysystemsintheUSmorehybridsystemsonpp835AdvanceProcessandDecisionsManagerRichardBoardmanleadscollaborationstohelpdemonstrationhybridenergysystems. EnhancingenergystoragePerformancetestingofenergystoragedevicesiscriticaltothelarge-scaledeploymentofrenewableenergyandadvancedvehiclesINLisregardedasaleadingnationallaboratoryinenergystoragetestingandanalysisIthasaprovenrecordofaccomplishmentinevaluatingadvancedenergystoragedevicesanddevelopingtestandanalysisproceduresInadditiontheUSDepartmentofTransportationandtheDOEenlistedINLtoworkwiththeNationalFireProtectionAssociationtoupdateemergencyresponseproceduresforelectricvehiclebatteryincidentsTheDOErecognizedthelabsexpertiseinadvancedvehicleandenergystoragetechnologybyincludingINLintheinvitation-onlyDOEElectricVehicleEVEverywherePlanningMeetingwithEnergySecretaryStevenChuTheEVEverywhereChallengeisaDOECleanEnergyGrandChallengeinsteadonbiomassForexampleINLisworkingwiththeElectricPowerResearchInstituteEPRItoanalyzeanddemonstratethefeasibilityofsupplementingandsubstitutingbiomassforcoalinelectricalutilityboilersTheteamwillanalyzesustainablebiopowerco-fringbiomassprocessingassemblyandsupplyandcombustiontestsINLisalsoworkingwithEPRItodevelopbiomassfeedermaterialforpotentialco-fringtestsinAlabamaandOregon.INListestingandanalyzingbiomassfeedermaterialsthatcouldbeusedtoconverttheBoardmanOre.coal-fredplanttoabiomass-fredplant.ThelabisworkingwithPacifcGasandElectricCompanyandEPRItoconvertenergycropsbeingdevelopedbyPGEintofeedstocksthatcouldbeburnedintheBoardmanplantTheteamispreparingforatrial-burnofbiomassinFY2014ThisprojectenablesamajorNorthwestutilitytodevelopcleanenergyoptionsthathelpmeetstateofOregonrenewableenergyportfoliostandardsmorebiofuelsonpg35thatstrivestoenableUScompaniestobethefrstintheworldtoproduceaffordableandconvenientplug-inelectricvehicleswithinthenext10yearsmoreadvancedvehiclesandenergystorageonpg34OptimizingbiofuelsproductionINLhasbeeninvolvedinseveraleffortsthatarehelpingprivatecompaniesconvertcoal-fredpowerplantstorun13 14CollaborationsWITH...ThenuclearenergyindustryCollaborationswiththenuclearenergyindustryhelpINLadvancenuclearenergyproductionandsafety.UtilitiesreactorvendorsfuelprovidersandcompaniesrangingfromstartupstoindustryleaderscanaccessINLanalysisandexpertise.NumerousagreementsenableINLtoshareknowledgeandcapabilitiesthataremostrelevanttoindustry.UpdatingcontrolroomsAseriesofpilotprojectsatcommercialnuclearpowergeneratingstationsandinINLsHumanSystemsSimulationLabaimedtohelpupgradereactorcontrolroomsTheprojectsdemonstrateddigitaltechnologiesthatcanhelpmodernizereactorinformationinstrumentationandcontrolsystemsOneproposedupgradeunderdevelopmenthasthepotentialtobeimplementedinnineUSnuclearpowerplantsINLhasengagedinsuchworkwithavarietyofcompaniesincludingExelonGenerationCompanyLLCSouthernCaliforniaEdisonCompanyandDukeEnergyINLsnewHumanSystemsSimulationLabincludes15panelsthatareeasilyreconfguredtoreplicatethenationscommercialplantcontrolroomsortrainingandmodernization. 15AnalysisProgramRELAPThelatestlicensedversionRELAP5-3DVersion4xallowsuserstomodelthecoupledbehaviorofthereactorcoreandcoolantsystemforvariousconditionsandpossibleaccidentsInFY2012thenumberofactiveRELAP5-3Dlicensesincreasedto64activelicensesthatincludemorethantwodozenforeignentitiesTestingfuelsandmaterialsThenuclearssionprocessandhighradiationeldsinsideareactoraffecttheperformanceofnuclearfuelsandreactormaterialsCompaniescancontractforaccesstoINLmaterialirradiationcapabilitiesattheAdvancedTestReactorandpostirradiationexaminationPIEandothercapabilitiesatMaterialsFuelsComplextohelptestandevaluatetheseeffectsExamplesincludenuclearfuelworkwithWestinghouseElectricCompanyandTerraPowerLLCandcomponentmaterialtestingwithCurtiss-WrightCorporationSustainingtheeetUSenergysecurityrequiresthenationsnuclearreactoreet104reactorssupplyingnearly20percentofUSelectricitytocontinuesafeoperationlongintothefutureINLhasacriticalroleintheDOEsLightWaterReactorSustainabilityProgramwhichworkswiththenuclearenergyindustryontechnologyRDneedsofcommoninterestsuchasstudyingmaterialpropertiesforlightwaterreactorlifeextensionTheprogramspartnersincludethenonprotElectricPowerResearchInstituteandmorethan30privatecompanies15EnhancingaccidenttoleranceINLprovidestechnicalexpertiseandlaboratoryfacilitiestodesignadvancednuclearreactorsandfuelsthatcantoleratedamageunderextremecircumstancessuchaslossofcoolantaccidentscenarios.SpecicallysuchsystemswouldoperateaswellascurrentoptionsbutbeabletotoleratelossofactivecoolingforlongerperiodsoftimeForexampleINLispartofaresearchteamthatisdevelopingahigh-powerreactorconceptwithinherentsafetyfeaturesTheteamwhichincludesWestinghouseElectricCompanyandSouthernNuclearOperatingCompanyisreceivingDOEresearchfundingINLalsoispartofauniversityresearchteamthatreceivedDOEfundingtofabricateandevaluatenewcladdingforfuelwithenhancedaccidenttoleranceInformingreactordesignAlonghistorydesigningandbuildingreactorsatINLhasprovidedawealthofknowledgeEstablishedcompaniessuchasBabcockWilcoxNuclearEnergyIncBWandstartupcompaniessuchasNuScalePowerIncseektolearnfromthelabsexperienceINLhaspendingandestablishedagreementswithmanycompaniestoprovidetechnicalexpertiseSuchinformationcanhelpcompaniesdevelopbothsmallandlargeadvancedreactordesignsAnalyzingreactorsafetyINLhasdevelopedtheindustryspremiermodelingtoolsforreactorandfueldevelopmentandhaslicensedthesetoolsforusearoundtheworldThemostfamousistheReactorExcursionandLeakTheDepartmentofEnergyhasalongtraditionofmakingnationallabcapabilitiesavailabletobusinessesdevelopingnewtechnologies.INLhelpsadvancethenuclearindustrybysharingitsanalysesandexpertisewithutilitiesreactorvendorsfuelprovidersandcompaniesrangingfromstartupstoindustryleaders.HerearesomeofthecompaniesthatestablishedcollaborationswithINLinFY2012. 16CollaborationsWITH...U.S.defenseagenciesTheUSDepartmentofDefenseisworkingtosecureitsenergysourcesandmeetrenewableenergymandatesatmilitaryinstallationsINLisprovidingprojectdevelopmentandengineeringsupportformultipleDODwindandsolarenergyprojectsaroundtheUSincludingWyomingsF.E.WarrenAirForceBasewindapotentialNationalGuardprojectinCheyenneWyowindUtahsTestandTrainingRange-SouthgeothermalandIdahosMountainHomeAirForceBasegeothermalINLcybersecurityexpertsalsoworkedwiththeDefenseDepartmenttoassessthephysicalandcybersecurityofcriticalinfrastructureattwoUSNavalbasesandproviderecommendationsforenhancingtheprotectionofcriticalresourcesandinterconnectedsystemsINLsexpertiseledtothecreationofamodelingandsimulationtoolthatenablesmilitaryinstallationsorothergovernmentfacilitiestoroughlyassesstheirvulnerabilitiesusingexistingdatasourcesThesearejustafewofthedozensofDefenseDepartmentcollaborationsatINLDomesticandforeigngovernmentsStateregionalnationalandinternationalpolicymakersrelyuponobjectivedatatoinformtheirdecisions.Sodogovernmentagenciesandassociations.INLservesasanhonestbrokerofobjectiveresearchandanalysiswhichiswhysuchentitiesoftenpartnerwiththelabtoaccessitsexpertiseandresearchsolutionstoabroadarrayofchallenges.WaterSystemsNationalParksEnergyResources 17MilitaryresearchTheDODisexploringoptionsfornuclearenergysystemstogenerateelectricityforin-theatermilitaryoperations.INLidentifedtherequiredcapabilitiesandevaluatedthetimescalestodesignbuildandtestaprototypesmallmodularreactorfortheDefenseAdvancedResearchProjectsAgencyDARPATheinsightgainedaboutoperationalconstraintsledDARPAtorequestasecondphaseofresearchfocusingonmorepioneeringconceptsINLisworkingwithexpertsinsideandoutsidethelabtonarrowtheoptionsandidentifycapabilitygapsInternationalAtomicEnergyAgencyIncreasedworldwideinterestinanuclearrecyclingtechniquecalledpyroprocessingnecessitatestheexpansionofIAEAinspectorskillsINLrespondedbyofferingspecializedtrainingforIAEAinspectorsandanalyststofamiliarizethemwiththefundamentalsequipmentandproliferationconcernsassociatedwithpyroprocessingThelabhasrecruitedtopnonproliferationexpertswithreal-worldexperienceandithasexperiencedesigningdevelopingandoperatingpyroprocessingfacilitiesDesignsorsmallmodularreactorsabovearebeingevaluatedorDARPA.INLsFuelConditioningFacilityletofersanideallocationtohelpIAEAinspectorstraintodetectpyroprocessingactivityinmembernations.MongoliangovernmentINLexpertswereamongsevenUSparticipantsatthesecondUS-MongoliaExpertLevelmeetinginAugust2012INLsSteveHerringandBonnieHongjoinedrepresentativesfromtheDOEtheNRCtheUSStateDepartmentandTexasAMUniversityMeetingparticipantsdiscussedkeyinitiativesnecessaryforsafelyandsecurelydeployinganuclearenergyprograminemergingcountriesEstoniangovernmentTheEstoniangovernmentinitseffortstohelpsecureitsnationalenergyinfrastructurevisitedINLtogatherinformationonmethodsandproceduresforcriticalinfrastructurecyberassessmentsThedirectorgeneraloftheEstonianInformationSystemsAuthorityandafve-persondelegationvisitedINLtodiscusscriticalinfrastructureprotectionThemeetingrequestfollowedanINL-invitedpresentationonthetopicattheEuropeanUnionConferenceonRaisingPublicAwarenessabouttheInformationSocietyinTallinnEstonia CollaborationsWITH...IdahoFallsPowerINLisworkingwithitslocalelectriccompanyonnumerousenergyresearchprojectsForoneIdahoFallsPowerhasparticipatedinbeta-testinganddemonstrationofINLcybersecuritytechnologiesandsoftwarethatcanhelputilitiesprotecttheircontrolsystemsINLresearchersalsohelpeddevelopandevaluatethenetworkIdahoFallsPowerdevisedtoaccommodateitsparticipationinthePacicNorthwestSmartGridDemonstrationProjectFinallya18collaborationbetweenresearcherswiththeCenterforAdvancedEnergyStudiesatINLtheIdahoFallsSchoolDistrictandIdahoFallsPoweriscollectingandanalyzingdatafromthreewindprojectsandthreesolarprojectsallofwhichfeedintotheutilityselectricgridUniversityresearchersTheAdvancedTestReactorATRNationalScienticUserFacilityNSUFcontinuedtogrowinFY2012UserfacilityexperimentswereperformedinfourofthepartnerfacilitiesandthreenewpartnerfacilitieswereaddedtotheprogramUserfacilityresearchincludingirradiationandmaterialspropertymeasurementexperimentscouldhelpregulatorsrenesafetymarginsforcontinuedsafeoperationofthenationscurrentreactorsNewcapabilitiesatPurdueUniversityPacicNorthwestNationalLaboratoryandOakRidgeNationalLaboratorybringto15thenumberofuniquecapabilitiesaccessiblethroughtheuserfacilityINLproposedchampionedandimplementedDOEsNuclearEnergyUniversityProgramstostrengthenUSnuclearscienceandengineeringeducationandtocoordinateresearcheffortsIn2012theprogramwasadministeringmorethan47millionAcademiaandothersNationallabsexistpartiallytoconductresearchanddevelopmentthatisntrightforindustryoracademia.Butclosepartnershipswiththeseandotherentitieshelpensuretransitionofresearchintonationallysignificantresults.SuchcollaborationsgroweveryyearandinFY2012INLrealizeda10percentincreaseinuniversitycollaborationsasgraduatestudentswereauthorizedtocompleteresearchatINLfacilities.InFY2012arecord1500studentsappliedforinternshipsatINL.About200studentsincluding36graduatestudentsand20doctoralcandidatesinternedatthelablastyear.ForthefourthconsecutiveyearINLwasamonginstitutionsrecognizedintheindependentVaultGuidetotopinternships. 19awardedto46collegesanduniversitiesAwardsincluded39undergraduatefellowships31fellowships26grantsforinfrastructureandreactorupgradesand48RDprojectsSince2009NEUPhasawarded219millionto81schoolsin34statesandtheDistrictofColumbiaGridprotectionArst-of-its-kindgatheringofDOEpolicyandtechnicalexpertstheUSintelligencecommunityandindustrydiscussedhowtoprotectthenationspoweranddistributionsystemfromemergingthreatsINLhostedtheGridProtectionworkshopwhichwassponsoredbyDOEsOfceofIntelligenceandCounterintelligenceItprovidedaforumtodiscussthreatsinformationsharingandfuturetechnologyneedsThisinteractiontypiesthetypeofcollaborationbetweenfederalagenciesandprivateindustrythatcanunderliedeploymentofanalyticalproductsandtechnologiesthatimproveresponsetonationalsecuritythreatsEmergencyoutagerecoveryFailedelectricitytransformerscantakeupto18monthstoreplaceTheDepartmentofHomelandSecurityRecoveryTransformerProjectmetanationaldemonstrationobjectivetotestemergencyresponsetomajoroutagesoftransmission-leveltransformersINLactedasatechnicalconsultantforDHSandEPRIwhichledtheefforttotransportanemergencyresponserecoverytransformerfromtheABBfactoryinStLouisandinstallitatCenterPointEnergyinHoustonWorldwidemodelingeffortsTheMOOSEsimulationframeworkhasrevolutionizedpredictivemodelingworkinanarrayofscientificfields.MOOSEandMOOSE-basedapplicationsarecurrentlylicensedforuseby25domesticandforeignlaboratoriesuniversitiesandcompaniesandtheusercommunityisgrowingrapidly.ActiveMOOSElicenseagreementsPacificNorthwestNationalLaboratoryLosAlamosNationalLaboratoryBechtelMarinePropulsionCorporationANATECHStudsvikScandpowerUniversityofChicagoArgonneSandiaNationalLaboratoriesMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologyUniversityofWisconsin-MadisonUniversityofTennesseeMississippiStateUniversityUTBattelleLLCCASLAtomicEnergyofCanadaLtd.ThePennsylvaniaStateUniversityColoradoStateUniversityGeneralAtomicsBYU-IdahoNationalNuclearLaboratoryLtd.RoyalMilitaryCollegeofCanadaInstituteofEarthScienceandEngineeringOregonStateUniversityParticipantsinthe2012ATRNSUFUsersWeekbelow. CapabilitiesNEWStrategicInfrastructureSeveralprojectscompletedinFY2012addtoanirreplaceablearrayofcapabilitiesthatworktowardachievingthestrategicinfrastructureoutlinedinINLsTen-YearSitePlan.ThefullcomplementofcapabilitiesenablesINLtorespondtotodaysnuclearenergychallengesserveasamultiprogramlaboratorywithbroadcompetenciesintheenergyandsecuritysectorsandaddressthechallengesahead.ResearchandEducationLaboratoryConstructionstartedlastyearonthe148000-square-footResearchandEducationLaboratoryaboveleftwhichwillco-locateDOEprogramspacewithuserfacilitiesandserveasthegatewaytotheAdvancedTestReactorNationalScientifcUserFacilitybasedatINL.Apublicmultiuseauditoriumwitha300-seatspacewillenableincreasedaccessbyvisitingscientistsandthepublictoINLeventssymposiaandconferencesofgreatersizeandscopethancurrentINLfacilitiesallowEnergySystemsLaboratoryINLresearchersarecurrentlymovingintothenew91000-square-footEnergySystemsLaboratoryESLaboverightThisstate-of-the-artresearchfacilitywillsupportkeyDOEadvancedenergyprogramsandprojectsThefacilitywillenableexpansionofINLsgrid-interfaceenergystoragecapabilityanimportantareaforallfutureelectricalgenerationoptionsTheESLprovidesanationalcapabilitytohelpDOEaddressstrategicbioenergyandenergystorageobjectives20TheResearchandEducationLaboratorywillserveasthegatewaytotheAdancedTestReactorNationalScientificUserFacility. 21ThreatassessmentcenterBystandinguptheIndustrialControlSystemMissionSupportCenterINLdemonstratedtheimpactofestablishinganationalthreatanalysisandresponsecapabilityThecenterprovidestheabilitytoassessandevaluateaspectrumofthreatsandriskstothenationscriticalinfrastructureIthasearnedvisitsfromDOEsenergysecretarydeputyenergysecretaryassistantsecretaryforelectricitydeliveryandenergyreliabilityanddirectorofintelligenceandcounterintelligenceHumanSystemsSimulationLaboratoryAfullcomplementofdigitalpanelsrepresentingacompletenuclearplantcontrolroomaboveisenablingresearchandexperimentationthatcannotbedoneelsewhereThenewHumanSystemsSimulationLaboratoryfundedbyDOEsLightWaterReactorSustainabilityProgramincludes15virtualcontrolroompanelsthataresupportingthemodernizationoflegacyinformationinstrumentationandcontrolsystemsThelabalsoprovidesanoperatingmodeltosignifcantlyenhancenuclearsafetyworkerproductivityandoverallplantperformancemorehumansystemssimulationonpg14INLcompletedconstructionoftheIrradiatedMaterialsCharacterizationLaboratoryaversatileHazardCategory2nuclearfacilitydesignedforprototypingdevelopingandtestingadvancedpost-irradiationexaminationinstrumentsandmethods. 22CapabilitiesNEWWirelesstestingcapabilitiesGrowingwirelesscommunicationusageandniteavailablespectrumbandwidthwillcontinuetolimitdatatransmissionquantityandspeedsIdahosisolatedlandscapeprovidesanunmatchedlocationforfull-scaleopen-airexperimentationbythosewantingtotestoptionsforincreasingnetworkefciencyimprovingsecurityandmakingmoreeffectiveuseofavailablebandwidthINLsexperiencedcommunicationsengineersbelowhelptestandevaluatewirelessdevicesandhardwarethatspanhigh-frequencyultra-high-frequencycellularsatelliteandmicrowaveInFY2012INLenhanceditsWirelessTestBedbyadding4GcapabilityMobileWiMAXandcompletedinitialcyberassessmentsandspectruminterferencetestsofvarious4GsystemsThetestbedaccommodatedroughly250testdaysfor11separatecustomerslastyearItalsohostedmorethan30meetingswithrepresentativesfromregulatorybodiesgovernmentagenciesacademiaandindustryincludingmostmajorcellularprovidersandcarrierseagertopartnerwithINLtoenhancethenationscapabilitiesBatterytestingExpandinglightdutyelectricvehicleuseisasustainableenergypriorityandbattery-basedenergystoragewillhelpdeployhybridandrenewableenergysystemsINLsignicantlyexpandeditselectricvehicleandstationarybatterytestingcapabilitywithmorethan5millionworthofnewequipmentAnewshakersystemsubjectsprototypeandproduction-readyautomotiveenergystoragedevicesparticularlyLithium-ionbatterypackstovibrationtestingSuchtreatmentevaluatessusceptibilitytothermalrunawayundernormalorextremeconditionsandhelpsimprovetheoveralldesignrobustnessBatterytestingenhancementssignicantlyexpandedtoincludelargewalk-inenvironmentaltemperaturechambersthataccommodateseveralfull-sizevehiclebatterysystemsinadditiontoseveraldozensmallerchambersfortestingsmallcellsanddevices 23DynamicEnergyStorageLabTheDOEDepartmentofDefenseandindustryhaverecognizedthatsmallmodularconversionplantscouldbetterexploitremoteandstrandedenergyassetssuchasnaturalgasthatisco-producedwithoilinremoteenvironmentallysensitivelocationsINLsDynamicEnergyStorageLaboratoryDESLprovidesatestbedtodemonstrateseveralkeyprinciplesincludingremoteconversionofelectricityandcarbon-basedresourcesintosyntheticfuelssynfuelstechnicalandeconomicfeasibilityofamodulardeployableenergyconversionsystemandremotemonitoringandcontrolusingareal-timesystemINLcompletedsetupandtestingofnewequipmentassociatedwithDESLandco-locatedwiththeHydrogenLaboratoryTheintegratedtestbednowincludeshighpressurehydrogenproductionsyngascompressionandrecirculationsynfuelproductionandbyproductgasmanagementINLsDynamicEnergyStorageLaboratoryprovidesatestbedtodemonstrateseveralkeyprinciples.INLsexpandedvehicleandbatterytestingfacilitybelowanditsDynamicEnergyStorageLableft. ThenationalnuclearlabExceptionalexpertiseuniqueinfrastructurenuclearmaterialsandstrategicpartnershipsconvergeatINLthenationsnuclearenergylaboratory.INLsworld-classcapabilitiesandintegratedinfrastructuresupportascience-basedapproachexperimentationtheorymodelingandsimulationandfirst-of-a-kinddemonstration.Thisapproachyieldstechnicallyachievableeconomicallycompetitiveandenvironmentallysustainableoptionsfortheentirenuclearenterprise.TechnologyADVANCINGNUCLEARENERGYSpawningsimulationtoolsTheMOOSEsimulationplatformdevelopedatINLhasinspiredcreationofasuiteofcodesusedtoadvancetheunderstandingofnuclearfuelperformanceBISONisathermo-mechanicalcodeexploringfuelperformanceattheengineeringscaleTheMARMOTcodemodelsfuelchangesoccurringatthemicroscaleduetoradiationdamageMOOSEcancoupleBISONwithMARMOTtoimprovepredictions24TheMOOSEplatformgeneratesstrikingsimulationsasshownbyMARMOTleftbysolvingcomplexmathematicalmodels.ForexampletheBISONapplicationabovesolvesasetofequationsdescribingnuclearfuelpinbehaviorinsideworkingreactors. SimulatingsafetyanalyticsINLspremierreactorsafetyandsystemsanalysistoolwillsoonbeMOOSE-basedTheReactorExcursionandLeakAnalysisProgramsnewestversionRELAP-7willincludeseveralimprovementsincludingenhancedmodelsimprovednumericalapproximationsandtheabilitytocouplewithmultidimensionalcoresimulatorsbeingdevelopedinotherDOEresearchprogramsTheRAVENsoftwaretoolwillprovideaRELAP-7userinterfaceanduseRELAP-7toperformRiskInformedSafetyCharacterizationBroadeningapproachProbabilisticriskassessmentfuelswithenhancedaccidenttoleranceandinstrumentationimprovementsallrelatetobroaderquestionsoflightwaterreactorsafetyYetspecializedresearchprogramslikethiscanbecomeisolatedThatswhyINListakingamoresystems-basedapproachtoreactorsafetymethodologyAnewprogramatthelabwillintegratetheseareastoenabletheadvancesthatresultfrombroadercollaborationsProducingsaferwasteformsTheDOEandINLarestudyingadvancednuclearwasteformsthatmayperformbetterthantheglobalstandardForexampleglasswasteformsisolateradioactivematerialsveryeffectivelybuttheireffectivenessislimitedbythetemperaturesthatcanbeachievedinconventionalmeltersINLhasdevelopedamoreefcientapproachformakingadvancedglass-ceramicwasteformsrightandsuccessfullydemonstratedthatSincethispublicationrstdescribedthesetoolslastyearnumerousadditionshavebeenaddedtotheherdPEREGRINEisanoffshootofBISONdesignedspecicallytomodellightwaterreactorfuelperformanceItincorporatesproprietaryElectricPowerResearchInstituteEPRImodelsandsupportsDOEsConsortiumforAdvancedSimulationofLightWaterReactorsModelingmultitudesOtherapplicationsdevelopedundertheMOOSEframeworkincludetheGrizzlycodeformaterialsagingwhichisbeingdevelopedjointlywithOakRidgeNationalLabandEPRIThecodemodelsdegradationinreactorpressurevesselsandothercomponentswhichcanbuildupafteryearsofuseDatafromGrizzlycouldhelpnuclearpowerplantownersunderstandthesourcesofchangeinsafetymarginandinformdecisionsoncomponentreplacementandrepairTheRattleSnakecodecouldbeusedtodesignandstudynewnuclearfuelswithenhancedaccidenttoleranceThecodemodelsthebehaviorofneutronsinnuclearfuelandreactorcoresAbetterunderstandingofthisneutrontransportphysicscansharpenunderstandingoffactorsthatimpactenergygenerationandmaterialdamage25approachlastyearThelabsstate-of-the-artColdCrucibleInductionMelterhasuniquefeaturesthatarewellsuitedforproducingadvancedglass-ceramichigh-levelwasteformssuchastheabilitytooperateathighertemperaturesthanconventionalmelters TechnologyADVANCINGNUCLEARENERGYRecognizingExpertiseDerekGastonAnINLcomputationalmathematicianwasoneof96recipientsofthe2012PresidentialEarlyCareerAwardforScientistsandEngineersDerekisINLsrstrecipientoftheawardthehighesthonortheUSgovernmentbestowsonearlycareerscienceandengineeringprofessionalsTheComputationalFrameworksGroupleadforINLsFuelsModelingandandSimulationDepartmentleddevelopmentoftheMOOSEsimulationframeworkmoreMOOSEonpp4192426RichardMartineauKathrynMcCarthyRichardMartineauThedirectorofINLsFuelsModelingandSimulationDepartmenthasbeenwidelysoughttohighlighttheMOOSEsimulationplatformanditsassociatedapplicationsIn2012hetravelledtomorethanadozensymposiainsixstatesWashingtonDCandabroadRichalsowasselectedasthetechnicalprogramchairforthe2013InternationalConferenceonMathematicsandComputationMethodsAppliedtoNuclearScienceandEngineeringKathrynMcCarthyThedirectorofDOEsLightWaterReactorSustainabilityProgramTechnicalIntegrationOfceatINLwasaskedtoserveonaNationalAcademyofSciencescommitteetoassesstheprospectsforinertialconnementfusionenergysystemsKathyalsoreceivedaNuclearEnergyAdvocateoftheYearAwardfromIdahosPartnershipforScienceTechnologyStevenHayesThisINLnuclearengineerdirectingirradiationtestingandpost-irradiationexaminationatINLwasselectedtoleadaprogramfortheDOEsOfceofNuclearEnergySteveisnowtheFuelModelingSimulationtechnicalleadfortheofcesNuclearEnergyAdvancedModelingandSimulationprogramChangOhAdistinguishedINLengineerwasnamedthe2012recipientoftheAmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineersASMEHeatTransferMemorialAwardintheartofheattransfercategoryIn2011ChangearnedtheINLLaboratoryDirectorsAwardforExceptionalEngineeringAchievement 27ProducinghydrogenProcesseslikepetroleumreningrequirehydrogenwhichistypicallyproducedbysplittingnaturalgasINLhasdemonstratedanefcientwaytomakehydrogenandsyntheticgasfromhigh-temperaturesteamThedecade-longprojectyieldednumerousawardsandgrewtheprogramtointernationalstatusTheteamproducedsixbookchapters29journalarticles104conferencepublications37DOEmilestonereportsandthreeUSpatents.Mostsignicantlyoverallefciencyoftheprocessimprovedfrom28percentto50percentoverthecourseoftheprojectStevenHayesChangOhSecretaryChuAwardsAchievementAwardsfromEnergySecretaryStevenChuwentto20INLemployeesTheSecretarysHonorAwardsprogramrecognizesoutstandingeffortsinsupportingDOEprogramsAteamof16INLemployeeswashonoredforeffortssupportingthesuccessfulMarsScienceLaboratoryMulti-MissionRadioisotopeThermoelectricGeneratorprojectTheywereJeremyAndersenChristianBrowningCarlaDwightEricClarkeGregHulaStephenG.JohnsonSueAnnKellerKristofferKellyKellyLivelyJamieMitchellGreggMoedlChaunceyPetersAmyPowellRobinStewartCourtneySwassingandDarrellWheeler.INLsIgorBolshinskyandEricWoolstenhulmewerehonoredforsupportingtheSeoulNuclearSecuritySummitthelargestsummiteverheldinthenuclearsecurityeld.INLemployeesThomasJohnsonandMichaelN.PattersonwerehonoredforeffortswiththeArgonneNationalLaboratoryFootprintReductionProgramINLshigh-temperatureelectrolysiscapabilityencompassessteamelectrolysisforhydrogenproductionco-electrolysisfordirectproductionofsyngasandreversiblesolidoxidecellsforalternatinghydrogenproductionandpowerproductioninenergystoragestrategies. 28ProtectingcriticalinfrastructureAmericaseconomicenergyandnationalsecuritydependsuponinfrastructurethatincludeswirelesscommunicationsystemselectricpowergridsandindustrialcontrolsystems.FornearlyadecadeINLhasbeeninternationallyrecognizedforresearchcapabilitiesthatsquarelyintersecteachoftheseareasandenablethenationtoaddresscurrentandemergingchallenges.TechnologyADVANCINGINFRASTRUCTURESECURITYSecuringindustrialcontrolsystemsThenationscriticalenergyinfrastructurerangesfromsystemsthatlightcitiestonetworksthatdeliveroilandgasSupervisorycontrolanddataacquisitionSCADAsystemsmonitorandmanagethiscomplexinterdependentinfrastructureTheDOEsNationalSCADATestBedprogramrecommendsprotectionstrategiesthathelpprivateutilitiesimprovetheresilienceofsuchcontrolsystemsFivenationallabsandmorethanadozenindustrypartnerscontributetotheprogramwithleadershipsupportfromINLThelabsfull-scaleindustry-providedSCADAsystemsenableroutinecyber-analysisbyexpertsINLalsoconductsonsiteassessmentsandtrainingvendorsrepresentingmorethan85percentoftheenergymarkethaveparticipatedThisvastexperienceprovidedinsightthathasledtodevelopmentofcybersecuritytoolssuchastheSophiasoftwarewhichmakesiteasierforindustrytosecureitscontrolsystemsmorecybersecurityonpg10ExpandingwirelesscommunicationsINLhasdemonstratedleadershipinUSgovernmentinitiativesforwirelessspectrumsharinginnovationThelabhasearnednationalrecognitionforitsinnovativewirelesscommunicationssolutionsmoreonpg11andhasreceivedexternalvalidationforitsabilitytoserveasanationalwirelesstestbedforspectrumsharingtechnologytestingandevaluationOneINLexpertwasinvitedtotestifyforaUSCongressHousecommitteeabouttheneedfornationalspectrumsharingtestingmoreonpage31INLalsohasparticipatedasamemberof 29theWhiteHouseOfceofScienceandTechnologyPolicysWirelessSpectrumSharingRDTaskForceThelabisrepresentedonstrategicnationalpanelsandcommitteesanditscollaborationshaveadvancedpartnershipsamonggovernmentindustryacademiaandlaboratoriesINLhostedarst-of-its-kindgovernmentindustryworkshoptosupportspectrum-sharinginitiativesTheSpectrumSharingTechnicalWorkshophelpedestablishatechnicalactionplantofacilitatespectrum-sharingresearchexperimentationandperformancevalidationTelecommunicationstakeholdersincludedcarriersequipmentanddevicemanufacturerstheUSDepartmentofDefensetheNationalTelecommunicationsandInformationAdministrationandtheFederalCommunicationsCommissionspectrumsharinggroupINLhasexcellentinfrastructureresearchteamsandfacilitiesthatcanbeofgreathelptosupportwirelessresearchandexperimentationinthenation.WirelessindustryrepresentativesvisitingINL TechnologyADVANCINGINFRASTRUCTURESECURITY30EnhancingcybersecurityINLprovidecriticalsupporttotheDepartmentofHomelandSecurityControlSystemSecurityProgramsIndustrialControlSystem-CyberEmergencyResponseTeamThisroleisthefoundationofapublic-privatepartnershipbetweenDHSandindustrywhichaimstodevelopanddeployinnovativetoolstrainingandcapabilitiesthathelpnationalandinternationalassetownersduringincidenthandlingandresponseDuringFY2012ICSCERTprovidedcybersecuritytrainingtomorethan2300professionalsandconductedmorethan85onsiteassessmentsacrossinfrastructuresectorsthatincludenuclearoilandgasanddefenseindustries 31RecognizingexpertiseRitaWellsUSDepartmentofHomelandSecuritySecretaryJanetNapolitanoappointedINLcyberandcontrolsystemssecurityresearcherRitaWellstoa15-membercyberskillstaskforceThegroupisdevelopingrecommendationstohelpthefederalgovernmentrecruitandretaintalentedcybersecurityprofessionalsRitaisa22-yearINLemployeethelabselectricsectorsecurityprogramsleadandtherecipientofnumerouscybersecurityawardsincludingtheSANSInstitutesSCADAsecurityleadershipawardSheisaregularinvitedspeakeratnationalcybersecurityconferencesandhasprovidedtestimonytoCongressoutliningcybersecuritychallengesintheelectricutilitysectorKarlBlackThesuccessfulcollaborationindevelopingaRiskManagementMethodologyandtheDynamicAttackTreeToolDATTearnedKarlanawardatthe2012DOEInformationManagementConferenceThistoolcanbeusedtoassessriskespeciallycyberriskbyenablinginteractivevisualizationandprioritizeddocumentationofapproachesanattackermighttaketodamagecompromiseorstealsensitiveinformationfromcomputersorotherelectronicdevicesRangamSubramanianTheUSHouseScienceSpaceandTechnologyCommitteeinvitedINLschiefwirelessandtechnologystrategisttotestifyatahearingoftheSubcommitteeonTechnologyandInnovationThehearingfocusedonAvoidingtheSpectrumCrunchGrowingtheWirelessEconomythroughInnovationRangamjoinedwitnessesrepresentingindustryandtheNationalInstituteofStandardsandTechnologytosupportestablishingafull-scalenationalwirelesstestbedINLwithitsstrongcapabilitiesinwirelessRDanditsfull-scalewirelesstestbedstandsreadytosupportthisnationalinitiativeonspectrum-sharing.INLsRangamSubramanianU.S.HouseScienceSpaceandTechnologyCommitteehearing 32TechnologyADVANCINGGLOBALSECURITYScrutinizingnuclearfuelcasksAnINLinventionhelpingtheIAEAdevelopthecapabilitytoverifythecontentsofnuclearfueldrycasksisbeingdemonstratedinBelgiumTheComptonDry-CaskImagingScanneraboveenablesinspectorstodiscernthecontentsofanuclearfuelstoragecaskwithouthavingtoopenitThedevicesitsatopaclosedcaskscanseachofitsstorageslotsandusesgammaraystorevealtheSafeguardingsoldiersandmaterialsINLsexplosivestestrangeandRadiologicalResponseTrainingRangeenableunmatchedtestingandtrainingopportunitiesthatbenefitthenationssoldiersandfirst-responders.BuildinguponitscoreexpertiseinnuclearfuelandciviliannuclearenergytechnologiesINLhasbecomeaninternationalresourceforsecuringnuclearmaterial.presenceorabsenceoffuelrodsateachpositionThedeviceallowsinspectorstoindependentlyverifystoragerecordswithouthavingtoopenthecasksItalsocanhelpwhenrecordsarentavailableorreliableVisualizingbulletimpactsINLenhanceditsNationalSecurityTestRangebyinstallingafashX-raysystemThisnewcapabilityallowsstop-motionimagingofbulletspenetratingtargetsbelowandotherdynamiceventsthatcantbeimagedusingconventionalhigh-speedvideotechniquesThecapabilitywillimproveresearchersunderstandingofdynamicballisticandexplosiveeventsenablingbetternumericalmodelingandimprovedarmordesigns 33DetectingradiationTheCellRADprototypeisanearlywarningsystemfordetectingradiologicalmaterials.UnmodiedcommercialcellularsmartphonescanbemadetodetectnuclearmaterialfromseveralfeetawaydependinguponfactorssuchassourcestrengthdistancefromthesmartphoneandshieldingAlarge-scaledeployablemobilenetworksensorarrayforradiationdetectioncanbequicklybuiltusingsoftwareuploadedtoanAndroidsmartphoneAhostcomputercancollectthesmartphonedatatoanalyzeprocessandvisualizethelocationofradiationsourcesResponsepersonnelmaythenbenotiedtoinvestigateorverifyinitialndingsusinghigh-caliberradiologicaldetectionequipmentRadiologicalresponsetrainingFirst-responderstoradiologicalemergenciesarebetterpreparedthankstotrainingorganizedbyDOEsNationalNuclearSecurityAdministrationINLexpertsaremembersofInternationalRadiologicalAssistanceProgramTrainingforEmergencyResponseI-RAPTERteamsthatconducted2012traininginThailandSloveniaandAustriaCollectivelythesessionstrained92respondersrepresentingmorethantwodozencountriesRecognizingexpertiseIgorBolshinskyMikeTyackeKenAllenINLexpertshaveledoperationaleffortsfortheNNSAsGlobalThreatReductionInitiativeanditscontinuedsecuringofmorethan1700kgofRussian-originhighlyenricheduraniumnuclearfuelTheyvehelpedoverseefuelshipmentsfromUzbekistanPolandCzechRepublicandKazakhstanEricWoolstenhulmeTheINLreactorengineerhelpedconvertaresearchreactorinMexicotooperateusinglow-enricheduraniumErichelpedorchestratedeliveryofthenewfuelPresidentObamalaudedthereactorconversionattheNuclearSecuritySummitinSouthKoreaGusCaffreyINLsLifetimeAchievementAwardacknowledgesthecareerachievementsofascientistorengineerwhohasmadenationallyandinternationallyrecognizedcontribu-tionsGusholdingawardatlefthasworkedasanINLphysicistformorethan30yearsHedevelopedtheRD100Award-winningPortableIsotopicNeutronSpectroscopysystemandthenuclearfuelcaskscannerdescribedonthepreviouspageThiswasaverycomplexoperationanditcouldnothavebeendonewithoutthecriticalsupportofyourorganization.ThomasP.DAgostinoformerundersecretaryforNuclearSecurityAdministratorNationalNuclearSecurityAdministrationontheconversionofaMexicanresearchreactor 34LocationsinTheEVProjectLocationsofotherdemosTechnologyADVANCINGENERGYSECURITYSustainableenergychallengeINLishelpingtheenergyindustryanditsregulatorsexpandenergysupplyimproveefficiencyandaddressenvironmentalconcerns.Thelabpartnerswithuniversitiesandindustrytohelpunderstandandreducerisksassociatedwithdeployingnewtechnology.INLssystemsengineeringexpertisedrivesabig-pictureperspectiveanddistinctiveperformancetestingcapabilitieshelpregulatorsdeterminetheimpactandregulatoryparametersfornewtechnologies.71milliontestmilesaccumulatedtodate10000electricdrivevehiclesEVshavesuppliedtestdata115modelsofadvancedvehicleshavesuppliedtestdata19000vehiclesandchargerscurrentlysupplyingdataONEMILLIONadvancedvehicletestingmilesworthofdatasenttoINLeachweekcarmakerscarconversioncompaniesconductivechargingcompanieswirelesschargingcompanieselectricutilityindustrygroups51542Collaborationsinplacewith52.7milliontestmilessofarINLisspeedingdeploymentofadvancedvehicleswithinformationabouthowsuchsystemsperform.ThelabcollectsandanalyzesdataforDOEsAdvancedVehicleTestingActivitywhichworkswithusersacrossthecountrytodemonstratethesevehiclesinreal-worlddrivingconditions.SomestatisticsaboutINLsinvolvementareabove. 35ClosertohomeINLisencouragingstateparticipationinenergysystemsplanningandassessmentwhichisimportanttoestablishingpolicyandstrategiesthatenablefutureenergysystemstobebuiltForexampleinFY2012thestateofWyomingpassedlegislationtoteamwithINLItstudiedhowhybridenergysystemscanbestbeusedtoconvertWyomingsfossilandwindenergyresourcesintohighervalueproductsThepartnershiphasalreadydelivereditsresearchreporttothelegislatureEnhancingbiofuelqualityINLispioneeringapproachesforprocessingbiomassfeedstockforbiofuelsproductionwhilealsodevelopingacommodityconceptthatcouldtransformbiomassutilizationInFY2012INLsBioenergyProgramcompleted60milestonessetbyDOEsEnergyEfciencyandRenewableEnergyOfceofBiomass.Theseincludedvetop-priorityJoulemilestonesForexampleINLsuccessfullyachievedwiththird-partyvalidationfeedstockcosttargetsforcornstoverharvestandstorageakeystepinmakingUSbioenergyeconomicallysustainableThelabalsoleadseffortstoformulateuniqueblendsoffeedstocksandadditivesleftthatcanimprovebiofuelproductionefciency.LeadingenergyadvancesINLisprovidingthethoughtleadershipandresearchtoolsthatareadvancingresearchtestinganddeploymentofhybridenergysystemswhichpairtwoormoreenergyresourcestoyieldenergysecuritybenets.INLpartneredwiththeJointInstituteforStrategicEnergyAnalysisattheNationalRenewableEnergyLabtoco-sponsoraninternationalhybridenergysystemsworkshopinSaltLakeCityTheworkshopidentiedresearchtopicsimportantforadvancingthepotentialuseofhybridsystemswithaspecicfocusonnuclear-renewablehybridsystemsAbout40peoplerepresentingnationallaboratoriesuniversitiesandenergycompaniesattendedfromacrosstheUSChinaandFrance55experimentalrunsinthefeedstockProcessDemonstrationUnitatINL76tonsofbiomassprocessedfor11projectcustomers24technicalpaperssubmittedorpublishedbyINLbiomassresearchers19conferenceswhereINLbiomassresearcherspresentedRDresultsincludingakeynoteaddressattheNortheastBiomassHeatingSymposium 36TechnologyADVANCINGENERGYSECURITYPilotingenergysystemsINLhasteamedwithWesternHydrogenLtd.todevelopamoltensaltgasierthatcanmanufacturehydrogenusingorganicwastebyproductssuchastheheavyresidualsproducedbyoilsandsproductionINLhasbuiltalab-scaledemonstrationofitspatentedtechnologyandWesternHydrogenhasobtaineda50percentfundingmatchtosupportdesignconstructionandtestingofapilotplantinAlbertaAssessinggeothermalresourcesSitingenhancedgeothermalsystemsrequiresdetailedunderstandingofsubsurfaceprocessesprimarilyrockpermeabilityToadvancethisworkINLcapitalizesonitsexpertiseinbothsubsurfacegeologyandadvancedmodelingandsimulationTheFALCONcomputermodelingcodeenablesresearcherstosimulatethephysicsoftheseprocesseswithneresolutionwhilealsomodelinganentiregeothermalreservoirFALCONwasbuiltonINLsMOOSEsimulationplatformandiscurrentlylicensedtoresearchentitiesintheUSAustraliaandNewZealandmoremodelingonpp424INLandtheUniversityofUtahcompletedareportassessinggeothermalresourcepotentialwithinUtahsTestandTrainingRange-SouthThereportwasacceptedbyUtahsHillAirForceBaseandtransmittedtotheUSAirForceEnergyProgramManagementOfceforfundingconsiderationINLalsosupportedthedrillingofanexploratorygeothermalslimholewellatIdahosMountainHomeAirForceBaseINLexpertshelpedadvisestudentteamsparticipatingintheDOEs2012NationalGeothermalStudentCompetitionwhichadvancesgeothermaleducationandgeneratesdatathatmayhelpindustrydevelopnewgeothermalsites.ThisyearscompetitionfocusedonthepotentialofIdahosSnakeRiverPlain. RecognizingexpertiseErinSearcyThebioenergytechnicalandanalyticalexpertinINLsBiofuelsandRenewableEnergyTechnologiesDepartmentisonaspecialone-yearassignmentatDOEsOfceofBiomassProgram.ErinissupportingtheofcesFeedstockPlatformbyhelpingestablishtechnicaltargetsandprogressmetricsdevelopingandexecutingkeyprogramworkshopsandassistingwithtechnicalinquiriesworkinggroupsandroundtablesRobertPodgorneyTheINLmanagerofEnergyResourceRecoveryandSustainabilityhasbeenappointedtochairaUSreservoirmodelingworkinggroupfortheInternationalPartnershipforGeothermalTechnologyTheUSSwitzerlandAustraliaNewZealandandIcelandarecollaboratingontheplanningeffortwhichwillhelpavoidduplicationofresearcheffortsStevenAumeierINLsassociatelaboratorydirectorforEnergyandEnvironmentScienceandTechnologyandCenterforAdvancedEnergyStudiesdirectorwasaplenaryspeakerattheInternationalCongressonAdvancedPowerPlantswherehediscussednuclearhybridenergysystemsStevealsochairstheIdahoStrategicEnergyAlliancewhichisdevelopingenergyplansandstrategiesforthestatesenergyfutureRichardWrightCarlStootsThe2012INLHonorsReceptionrecognizedRichardrightforexceptionalscienticachievementsrelatedtoadvancednuclearreactormaterialsCarlleftwashonoredforexceptionalengineeringachievementsonhigh-temperatureelectrolysis37 CollaborativeUNIVERSITYCenterforAdvancedEnergyStudiesThiscollaborationbetweenINLandIdahosthreepublicresearchuniversitieshaschangedtheperceptionofrelationshipsbetweenthefederalgovernmentandstateentities.CAESisnowheldupasamodelacrosstheDOEcomplexofhowafederal-statepartnershipcanleverageeachmembersinvestmentstobenefithighereducationresearchthroughoutthestate.38MODELLeveraginginvestmentsTheCAESpartnershaveproventhatanationallaboratoryandcompetingpublicuniversitiescancollaboratetoachieveresultsResearchersfrompartnerinstitutionsworkside-by-sidetoassemblestronginnovativeproposalsthatwinfundingfromavarietyofagenciesandindustriesTheCAESmodelenablesthepoolingofresourcesandsharingofequipmentwhichletsCAESresearcherscompetewithmuchlargeruniversitiestowinresearchdollarsInadditiontheuniversitypartnerscontinuetobuildstrongacademicprogramsthatareeducatinganewgenerationofscientistsandengineersBoiseStateUniversityrecentlyintroducedadoctoralprograminmaterialsscienceandengineeringUniversityofIdahoandIdahoStateUniversitycontinuetobuildenrollmentinnuclear-relatedfelds.AndresearchopportunitiesatCAESarepartlyresponsibleforincreasingINLsgraduatestudentinternshipsTHREETHOUSANDNumberofpeoplewhotouredCAESanditsComputer-AssistedVirtualEnvironmentCAVEaboveduringFY2012. 39AttractingoutsideusersTheCAESMicroscopyandCharacterizationSuiteMaCSbuiltastrongcustomerbaseinFY2012attractingusersfrominsideandoutsidethepartnershipincludingMicronNanosteelUniversityofCaliforniaSantaBarbaraUniversityofCaliforniaBerkeleyGeneralElectricOxfordUniversityUniversityofFloridaTexasAMandUniversityofWisconsin-MadisonImprovingenergyefciencyTheCAESEnergyEfciencyResearchInstitutelaunchedastatewideindustrialassessmentcenterusingaDOEgrantStudentteamsconductedfreeenergyefciencyassessmentsforregionalcompaniesandmanufacturingplantsDuringFY2012theteamsconductedeightvisitsandsubmittedfourreportsidentingatotalprojectedenergysavingsof1003464kilowatthoursandapotentialcostsavingsof109534SitingsolarenergyfacilitiesTheCAESEnergyPolicyInstituteleadsateamof12researchersthatisdevelopingacomputer-basedGeographicInformationSystemtooltoidentifypotentialsitesforlarge-scalesolarenergyfacilitiesThetoolanalyzesnaturalresourcesphysicalcharacteristicsandpublicacceptanceopinionofwheresuchfarmsshouldbelocatedThe28millionprojectisbeingfundedthroughDOEsSunshotInitiativeSponsoredbytheCAESEnergyPolicyInstitutethesecondannualWesternEnergyPolicyResearchConferencefeaturedmorethan45presentationsfrom33universitiesnationallaboratoriesandstakeholdergroupsthroughouttheU.S.CanadaandtheUnitedKingdom. 40FOURHUNDREDNumberofeducatorswhoattendedforhands-onworkshopssponsoredbytheIdahoScienceTechnologyEngineeringandMathematicsinitiative.CollaborativeUNIVERSITYMODELSupportingSTEMeducationMorethan400educatorsattendedfourhands-onworkshopssponsoredbytheIdahoScienceTechnologyEngineeringandMathematicsinitiativeori-STEMofwhichCAESisamemberCAESalsoprovidedtourstoseveralstudentgroupsduringFY2012includingIdahoScienceandAerospaceScholarsandMyAmazingFutureafemale-orientedhands-onSTEMworkshopCAESanditspartnerinstitutionssupportseveralSTEMeventsthroughouttheyearincludinghands-onactivitiesforK-12students. 4145NumberofpresentationsgivenbyuniversitiesnationallaboratoriesandstakeholdergroupsatthesecondannualWesternEnergyPolicyResearchConferencesponsoredbytheCAESEnergyPolicyInstitute.TotalamountofcompetitiveresearchandotherfundingCAESresearchershavewonsinceFY2008.50.97MILLIONThestatesreturnonitsFY2012investmentintheCAESpartnership.5.61NumberofjobsCAESgeneratedinFY2012accordingtoaUIassessment.186NumberofjobsCAEShasgeneratedfromFY20092012.1075Numberofstudentsenrolledinnuclear-relateddegreeandcertificateprogramsattheCAESpartneruniversities.583NumberofpublicationspresentationsandproceedingsCAESresearchersproducedinFY2012.22580PeoplefromindustryacademiaandgovernmentagenciesconvergedinBoisetotakepartinthesecondannualIdahoResearchSymposiumwhichconnectsIdahocompanieswithresearcherstosparkpotentialcollaborations.InFY201212entitiessponsoredtheeventand58companiesparticipated.MakingthemostofmanureACAESbioenergyresearchteamisinvestigatingusingefuentaliquidwasteproducedduringtheanaerobicdigestionofdairymanuretogrowalgaewhichcanthenbeusedtomakeseveralvalue-addedproductsTheprojectfundedbyagrantfromtheUSDepartmentofAgricultureisacollaborationbetweenCAESandtheInnovationCenterforUSDairyanindustrygroupcommittedtoreducinggreenhousegasemissionsby20percentatthenationsdairyfarms INLABOUTwww.inl.govMoreinformationNicoleStrickernicole.strickerinl.gov208-526-5955Inoperationsince1949INLisascience-basedappliedengineeringnationallaboratorydedicatedtosupportingtheU.S.DepartmentofEnergysmissionsinnuclearandenergyresearchscienceandnationalsecurity.12-50608