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IdahoNationalLaboratoryANNUALREPORTFY2012 FROMTHEDIRECTORFROMTHEDIRECTORMarch2013ItismypleasuretopresenttheIdahoNationalLaboratoryINLFiscalYear2012LaboratoryDirectedResearchandDevelopmentLDRDAnnualReport.Thisreportdemonstratesthetypesofcutting-edgeresearchINLisundertakingtomatureourtechnicalcapabilitiesandhelpensurethenationsenergysecurity.ThisyearweveaddedanewelementtheLDRDSnapshottohighlighttheprogramsresearchdiversityuniversitycollaborationsmetricsandsuccesses.INLsLDRDprogramisoperatedincompliancewiththeDepartmentofEnergyDOEorder413.2B.ThisworkalignswithINLsstrategicplanandbenetstheDOE.TheprogramsdiverseresearchanddevelopmentemphasizestheDOEOfceofNuclearEnergyDOE-NEmissionwhichencompassesbothadvancednuclearscienceandtechnologyandunderlyingtechnologies.INLsLDRDprogramalsoadvancesthatmissionbyhelpingdeveloptechnicalcapabilitiesnecessarytosupportfutureDOE-NEresearchanddevelopmentneeds.ResearchareasduringFY2012includedcontrolroommodernizationnuclearmaterialfabricationadvancedreactormodelingnext-generationtestreactorresearchstrongernuclearmaterialsfuelmodelingwastereductionfuelrecyclingandadvancedradiationdetectionAsamultiprogramnationallaboratoryINLresearchservesthenationthroughtechnologythatenhanceshomelandsecurity.Theseresearchareasincludewirelesstechnologiescybersecurityelectricgridreliabilitynuclearnonproliferationandexplosivesprotection.INLsisolatedsiteandtestbedinfrastructureareidealforexperimentationanddemonstrationsthathelpprotectthenationsresourcesandadvanceenergysecurity.INLssciencebaseisfurtherstrengthenedbyresearchtoadvancealternativeenergysystemsthatreducegreenhousegasemissionsandbolsterenergysecurity.INLsappliedscienceandreal-worldassessmentsofimprovedenergysystemsandnaturalresourcedevelopmenthelpsecurethecountrysfutureandprotecttheenvironment.ThisyearsLDRDprojectsofferasnapshotofthediversecreativityandexpertiseresidingatINL.Theyofferinnovativeapproachestoscienticquestionsandtechnicalproblems.Inshorttheseprojectshelpthelaboratorymaintainscienticandtechnicalvitalitywhilefosteringcreativityandstimulatingexplorationattheforefrontofscienceandtechnology.Mostcriticallytheyrepresentourdedicationtothefutureofthelaboratoryboththephysicalcapabilityandthetalentedstaffthatstepuptoanswerthenationsmostpressingenergychallenges.IamproudoftheaccomplishmentsandopportunitiesthatINLsLDRDprojectsprovidetothenation.Iencourageyoutotakethetimetoreviewtheseprojectnarrativesandreectontheircontributions.JohnGrossenbacherDirectorIdahoNationalLaboratory 1INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012TABLEOFCONTENTSIntroductionMissionandmetricsofINLsLDRDprogram...........................2ResearchProjectHighlightsBriefdescriptionsofLDRDprojectsspanningthebreadthofINLsresearchanddevelopmentobjectives...........................4AwardsRecognitionLDRDresearchershonoredinFY2012...............................18UniversityCollaborationsOverviewofLDRDuniversityinteractionsincludingcollaborationsdoctoralresearchprojectsinternsandpost-doctoralfellows..............................................24ProjectsummariesDetaileddescriptionsofallFY2012LDRDprojectsincludingthosereferencedbyprojectnumberinthispublication..............CDonlineOnthecoverLDRDfundedthedevelopmentofINLsMOOSEsimulationframeworkbyateamincludingJasonMillerright.MOOSErunsnumerousapplicationsincludingMARMOTwhichmodelsmicrostructuralchangesinnuclearfuelduringssion.DevelopersDerekGastonandMichaelTonksareshowninthebackground.Moreonpp.5-8.EditorNicoleStrickerGraphicdesignersKristineBurnhamDavidCombsPhotographerChrisMorganPreparedbyIdahoNationalLaboratoryIdahoFallsIdaho83415.ManagedbyBattelleEnergyAllianceLLCfortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergyundercontractDE-AC07-05ID14517.ThisreportwaspreparedasanaccountofworksponsoredbyanagencyoftheUnitedStatesGovernment.NeithertheUnitedStatesGovernmentnoranyagencythereofmakesanywarrantyexpressorimpliedorassumesanylegalliabilityorresponsibilityfortheaccuracycompletenessorusefulnessofanyinformationapparatusproductorprocessdisclosedorrepresentsthatitsusewouldnotinfringeprivatelyownedrights.ReferencehereintoanyspeciccommercialproductprocessorservicebytradenametrademarkmanufacturerorotherwisedoesnotnecessarilyconstituteorimplyitsendorsementrecommendationorfavoringbytheUnitedStatesGovernmentoranyagencythereof.TheviewsandopinionsofauthorsexpressedhereindonotnecessarilystateorreectthoseoftheUnitedStatesGovernmentoranyagencythereof. 2INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONTheFY2012LDRDAnnualReportSnapshotprovidesaglimpseofthediverseresearchperformedtodevelopandensurethatINLstechnicalcapabilitiessupportcurrentandfutureDOEandNationalNuclearSecurityAdministrationNNSAmissionsandnationalresearchpriorities.LDRDisessentialprovidingameanstomaintainscientificandtechnicalvitalitybyfundinghighlyinnovativehigh-riskpotentiallyhigh-valueresearchanddevelopmentRD.INLsdiverseLDRDportfolioexploresscientificandengineeringconceptstodeveloptheneedsofDOEsOfficeofNuclearEnergyDOE-NEincludingadvancedreactormodelingnuclearwastereductionandfuelrecycling.INLsLDRDresearchstimulatesexplorationattheforefrontofcybersecurityelectricgridreliabilityandwirelesstechnology.Theforward-lookingnatureofthelaboratorysRDstrengthenstheDOEmissionbyadvancinghybridenergysystemsandevolvingenergysecurityneeds.TheLDRDprogramprovesitsbenefiteachyearthroughnewprogramsintellectualpropertypatentscopyrightsnationalandinternationalawardsandpublications.ItalsoprovidesameanstofeedthepipelinewithscientistsandengineersthroughundergraduateandgraduateinternshipspostdoctoralassignmentsandinternalPh.D.candidates.BENEFITSOFLDRDINLconsistentlyrealizessignificantbenefitsfromtheLDRDprogram.TheFY2012metricsareshownbelow.FY-2012LDRDMETRICSNationalInternationalAwardsTWOInventionDisclosuresNINETEENPatentsCopyrights162RefereedPublicationsINLPostDocsINLStudentsNewScientificEngineeringHiresINLsLDRDportfolioexploresscienticandengineeringconceptstostimulateexplorationattheforefrontofnuclearenergynationalandhomelandsecurityandenergysecurity. 3INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012THELDRDPROCESSATINLINLsolicitsideasforLDRDprojectsthroughanannualcallforproposals.Thecalltakesintoconsiderationtheneedtosupportkeytechnicalcapabilitydevelopmentcollaborationwithuniversityandindustrypartnersandothercrucialresearchincludingenablingorcross-cuttingscience.Thesesolicitationsencourageinnovativeapproachesproposedbyindividualresearchersorsmallmultidisciplinaryteams.Thecallforproposalsincludesarequirementforapre-proposalfollowedbyafullwrittenproposalatechnicalpeerreviewandamanagementreviewpriortoprojectselection.Theintentofthepre-proposalprocessistoprovideprincipalinvestigatorstheopportunitytobrieflyarticulateanideapriortoinvestingtimeandefforttowriteafullproposal.SelectedprojectsthensubmitafulldetailedproposalwhichFY2012LDRDPROGRAMSTATISTICS28742dollarsK1181000dollarsKTENthousanddollarsTOTALLDRDPROGRAMCOSTNUMBEROFPROJECTSLARGESTPROJECTALLOCATIONSMALLESTPROJECTALLOCATIONREPORTORGANIZATIONThisreportconsistsoftheFY2012AnnualReportSnapshotPartIandindividualLDRDprojecthighlightsPartIIviaCDandonlineatwww.inl.govLDRD.TheSnapshotbeginswithresearchhighlightsthatexemplifythediversityofscientificandengineeringresearchperformedatINLinFY2012followedbysectionssummarizinguniversitycollaborationsutilizingLDRDfundingandFY2012awardsandrecognitiondirectlyresultingfromLDRDfunding.PartIICDandonlineincludesindividualprojectsummarieswithageneraldescriptionoftheprojectasummaryofthescientificortechnicalprogressachievedduringthelifeoftheprojectabriefstatementdescribinghowtheprojectbenefitedtheDOEnationalsecuritymissionsandrelevantpeer-reviewedpublicationsandpresentations.TheCDalsoincludesappendicesacronymlistauthorindexandprojectrelevancetonationalprogramsthatmaybeusefultoreaders.issubjecttotechnicalpeerreviewandmanagementreview.AdatasheetforselectedprojectsisthenprovidedtoDOEsIdahoOperationsOfficeDOE-IDforconcurrence.ThecontinuingandproposednewLDRDprojectsareauthorizedtostartworkattheonsetofthenewfiscalyearfollowingreceiptofDOE-IDsconcurrenceandapprovalbyDOE-NEoftheannualLDRDProgramPlan. 4PROJECTHIGHLIGHTSRESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSControlroommodernizationNuclearpowerplantsareconstantlyenhancingsafetybutcontrolroomupgradesrequireawaytotestanddemonstrateimprovements.TheU.S.nuclearenergyindustrytheNuclearRegulatoryCommissionandtheDOEhaveaninterestinassessingandimprovingcontrolroomoperatorperformance.OneLDRDprojectisdevelopingaHumanSystemSimulationcapabilityatINLtosupportstate-of-the-artstudiesofhumanresponsestonormalandemergencysituationsincontrolroomsandotherenvironmentswhereoperatorsinteractwithcomplextechnology.Thereconfigurablecapabilityenablesadvancedresearchtestingandvalidationusingbothgenericandplant-specificmodelsfromindustrypartnersproject11-062.Understandingthehumanimpactoneventresolutionorescalationcanimprovenuclearenergyriskandreliabilitymargins.Theexistingcollectionofmethodsandpracticescouldbenefitfrommorescientificresearch.AnotherLDRDprojectisdevelopingascientificapproachtocollecthumanperformancedataatOhioStateUniversityandINLcontrolroomsimulatorfacilitiesandtomodelchangingsituationsbyexpandingadynamicsimulationengineattheUniversityofMaryland.AthirdLDRDprojectcollaborateswiththeUniversityofIdahotoestablishatechnicalbasisforthedesignofnewnuclearpowerplantalarmsystemsprojects12-043and12-086.NuclearmaterialfabricationNuclearfuelscouldachievehigherefficiencyandimprovedsafetymarginsforstorageiftheywerecladusingalloysthatareresistanttocertainformsofmaterialsaging.Newalloyswithdispersionsofnanometer-scaleoxideparticlesoxidedispersionstrengthenedorODSprovideenhancedresistancetocreepdeformationandalsohavebeenfoundtoincreaseresistancetoradiationdamage.OneLDRDprojectassessestheuseofsparkplasmasinteringorfield-assistedsinteringasastepforsimplifyingODSalloyproductionandpotentiallyreducingcosts.AlloyconstituentshavebeenfabricatedandcharacterizedincollaborationwithBoiseStateUniversityandUniversityofIdahoproject10-056.AimingtodeliveranewODS-typealloyandfabricationapproachanotherLDRDprojecteliminatestime-consuminglabor-andenergy-intensivemethodssuchasmechanicalalloying.ThisprojectisdevelopingnanoscalemolybdenumneodymiaadditiveagentsforODSalloyfabrication.Molybdenumnanoparticleprecursorshavebeenproducedinthe2-3nanometerrange.Broadapplicationofthistechnologywouldovercomea100-year-oldscienceandtechnologybarrierwouldbringsignificantenergysavingsintheproductionofODSalloysandcouldhavetremendouscommercialvaluewhenappliedtosteelsproject12-061.LDRDproject11-062isdevelopingaHumanSystemSimulationcapabilityforstudiesofhumanresponsestonormalandemergencysituationsincontrolrooms. 5INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012INLsAdvancedTestReactoristhenationspremierresourceforirradiationtestingnuclearsafetyresearchandnuclearisotopeproduction.AdvancedreactormodelingINLsAdvancedTestReactorATRcanbeusedasaplatformforverificationandvalidationofadvancedmodelingandsimulationandasaresearchtooltohelpenhancelightwaterreactorperformance.ToadvancethisgoalanLDRDprojectiscreatinganewapplicationcalledBighornfortheMultiphysicsObjectOrientedSimulationEnvironmentMOOSEframework.ThephysicscontainedinBighornwillsimulatethemassandenergytransportofreactorsystemscoolantwhichisnotpossiblewithcurrentmodelingtools.Bighornwillenablestate-of-the-artmodelingofsingle-andmultiphaseflowwithstrongcouplingtosolid-stateheattransfersuchasthethermalenergytransportinnuclearfuel.ThisprojectwillhelpadvanceATRmodelingandsimulationtotheforefrontofcomputationalmethodsfornuclearreactordesignanalysiswhichhasapplicationsincludinglightwaterreactorsNextGenerationNuclearPlantconceptsandsodium-cooledfastreactorsproject11-061.SuccessStoryAnLDRD-fundedhybridlaser-gasmetal-arcweldingGMAWprocessalignswithDOEsOfceofNuclearEnergyeffortstodevelopadvancedreactortechnologieswhichwillrequiremoreefcientfabricationprocesses.TheFY2012projectsproof-of-principleresultedinasuccessfulproposalundertheNuclearEnergyEnablingTechnologiesNEETprogramproject12-116. 6RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSNext-generationtestreactorThecostsassociatedwithmaintainingcurrentDOEtestreactorsandconvertingthemtouselow-enricheduraniummaymakeitpracticaltoconsiderbuildingasinglenewresearchreactor.Addressingthedesignofsuchareactorisadauntingtask.AnLDRDprojectisexploringthefeasibilityofanewtestreactorthatcanuselow-enricheduraniumandmeetdiverseirradiationneedscurrentlyservedbyDOEreactors.WorkingwiththeINLexpertsdevelopinglow-enricheduraniumfueladesignteamisexploringconceptsrightfortheMATRIXMultipleApplicationThermalReactorforIrradiationeXperimentsproject12-117.StrongernuclearmaterialsTheobjectiveofthisLDRDprojectistounderstandthefundamentalsofnuclearfuelperformancebyhelpinglinkexperimentaleffortsandmodeling.Theprojectisdevelopingamethodtoreconstructrealisticmicrostructuresfromelectronback-scatterdiffractionpatternsofunirradiatedandirradiateduraniumoxidefuelandZircaloycladding.ThereconstructionscanthenbeusedinMARMOTanINLmodelingapplicationthatsimulatesmicroscopicbehaviorofnuclearfuelduringirradiation.Havingtheabilitytostudythecrystalstructurechemistryandmicrostructureofirradiatedfuelinthreedimensionsiscriticaltounderstandingthefundamentalsoffuelperformanceproject12-031. 7INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012Body-centered-cubicmetalsareusedextensivelyasstructuralmaterialsinreactorcores.Howeverthereisaknowledgegapregardingtheunderlyingdeformationmechanismsassociatedwithsuchmetalsundernuclearreactorconditions.AnLDRDprojectisbuildingatomistic-basedknowledgeofdeformationbehaviorundervaryingconditions.Theresearchenablesscientistsandengineerstobetterunderstandandpredicthowirradiationandinertgasesmayaffectstructuralmaterialperformanceinthereactor.Suchacapabilitywillextendthelifetimeofexistingnuclearpowerplantsandallowimprovedmaterialdesignsforfutureplantsproject10-008.NuclearfuelmodelingModelingandsimulationabovecanhelpreducethecostandtimerequiredtodevelopnewnuclearfuelformsandtounderstandthebehavioroffuelathighburnup.ThisLDRDprojectfocusesonreliableuncertaintyanalysisofsuchmultiscalesimulationsofnuclearfuelperformance.Thestate-of-the-artcapabilitiesdevelopedthroughthisLDRDprojectwillleadtoimprovedpredictivecapabilitiesformultiscalemodelsofnuclearfuelsproject11-074.Untilrecentlystate-of-the-artcomputationaltoolssimulatingnuclearfuelperformanceprohibitedanalysisofimportant3DbehaviororapplicationSuccessStoryTheMOOSEsimulationframeworkhasrevolutionizedpredictivemodelinginanarrayofscienticelds.LDRDfundingsupportedthedevelopmentofseveralMOOSE-basedapplicationswhichnowsupportmultipleDOEresearchprogramsandarelicensedforuseby25domesticandforeignlaboratoriesuniversitiesandcompanies. 8RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTStonewfuelmaterialsnewdesignsorextendedfuelburnup.INLsMOOSEcomputationalframeworkwasusedasthebasisforINLsengineering-scalefuelperformancecodeBISON.ForanotherLDRDprojectthemesoscalefuelscodeMARMOTwasdevelopedusingtheMOOSEframework.TheprojectalsocoupledMARMOTandBISONtocreateapowerfulmultiscaleparallel2Dand3Dfuelsimulationcapabilitythatistrulypredictive.Thiscapabilitywasdemonstratedbysimulatingthebehaviorofahighlyresolvedfull-lengthdiscrete-pelletfuelrod.ThecapabilityalsowasusedtostudytheeffectsofamanufacturingfueldefectknownasaMissingPelletSurfacethefirsttimesuchbehaviorhasbeenanalyzedin3Doverthefulllifeofthefuelrodproject10-017.NuclearwastereductionPyroprocessingisapromisingtechnologyforrecyclingusednuclearfuelandimprovingtheassociatedwastemanagementoptions.Theprocesselectrochemicallytreatsthefuelcausingfissionproductsfromtheusedfueltoaccumulateinmoltensaltelectrolytes.AnLDRDprojectwithUniversityofIdahodevelopedmethodsforreusingthenonradioactivesaltstoproduceamoreconcentratedradioactivewasteformwithlessvolume.Bycombiningoptimizedsaltfreezingwithoptimizedsaltsorptionbyzeolitesthevolumeofhigh-levelwastecouldbereducedbyafactoroffiveormorecomparedtobaselinepyroprocessingwastetechnologywhichwouldvastlyimprovepyroprocessingscommercialviabilityproject10-015.TheBISONsimulationapplicationabovemodelsnuclearuelperormanceduringfssion.Crystalsromamoltensaltdepositedonacoldfngerrightrepresentapotentialmethodorreducingnuclearwastevolume.TimeminCoolantgasflowrateLmin57.49.812.314.9101530 9INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012NuclearfuelrecyclingNuclearfuelrecyclingtechnologiescouldhelpmakeuseofthevaluableenergyresourceresidinginsideusedfuelrodsandminimizethefinalvolumeofnuclearwaste.Toretrievetheusefulresourcesfromusedfuelmaterialsthatjump-startthechainreactionmustbeseparatedfromthecomponentsthatinterferewithfission.ExploringnovelextractionsystemstocompletethedifficultseparationoftheminoractinidesfromthefissionproductlanthanidesinamoresimplisticmannercomparedtocurrentmethodologiesisthegoalofthisLDRDproject.Thisworkiscontributingtodesignofanadvancedfuelcyclethatisresistanttonuclearproliferationproject11-023. 10RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSGlobalnuclearsecurityBothDOEandtheNationalNuclearSecurityAdministrationareworkingtoreducetheriskofnuclearproliferationandprovidetechnologiestoimprovenuclearsafeguards.Thedetectionandidentificationofactinidesduringreprocessingenhancessafeguardsbymakingmaterialtrackinglessintrusiveandmoretransparent.Alaser-inducedbreakdownspectroscopyLIBSsystemforrapidreal-timeelementalanalysisofactinidesinmoltensaltsandmixturesofradioactivemetalsfromdriedsolutionswasdevelopedunderanLDRD.Suchanalysescanimprovedetectionofillicitreprocessingactivitiesproject07-052restartedinFY2011.SuccessStoryLDRD-fundedworktoimprovedetectionofillicitnuclearreprocessingactivitieshasresultedindirectDOEfundingtocontinuedevelopmentandapplicationoflaser-inducedbreakdownspectroscopyLIBSforcomplexactinidesamples.ABlueSkyLDRDportfolioprojectwouldenableimprovedlessexpensiveminiaturizedinstrumentsthatcouldbeemployedbyInternationalAtomicEnergyAgencyinspectorsfordetectingpotentialnuclearproliferationviolations.ThetotalioncontrolTICtechnologyisaradicallysimplerobustconceptthatsignificantlyimprovesdetectionlimitsandminiaturizationofanalyticalinstrumentssuchasmassandionmobilityspectrometers.TICcanalsofacilitatefieldmonitoringforenvironmentalcontaminationexplorationforoilandmininge.g.rareearthelementsanddetectionofexplosivesandchemicalwarfareagentsproject12-081. 11INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012AnLDRDprojectisexploringinnovativeconceptsforradiationdetectionmethodstoaddresssuchshortfalls.Themethodsareunconventionalbecausetheytranscendtraditionalsensorrelianceonneutronandgammaraysorbecausetheyseektoadaptcurrentmeasurementapproachesforuseinnewapplications.Researchersstudiedlong-lengthscintillatingfiberbundlesforradiationdetectionsothatequipmentcommonlyusedbylawenforcementandmilitarypersonnelcouldbecost-effectivelyadaptedforemergencyradiationdetectionandbeincorporatedintoadistributedsensornetworkforwide-arearadiationfieldmonitoringproject11-059.E6E64-Gd-157ngammaENDFb-Vi11.048-Cd113ngammaENDFB-V11.02-He-3npENDFB-V11.0E5E4E3E2E1E0E-1E-2E-3E-5E-4E-3E-2E-1E-0E-1IncidentEnergyeVCrosssectionbE-2E3E4E5E6E7AdvancedradiationdetectionTechnicalchallengescurrentlymakenuclearmonitoringdifficultforanumberofapplicationsincludinginsidecentrifugeenrichmenthallsinhigh-throughputspentnuclearfuelhandlingandprocessingfacilitieswithinthehighradiationfieldsofpyroprocessinghotcellsforadvancedtransuranicfuelformsforactiveinterrogationofcargoandinstandoffscreeningsystems.DevelopinganovelradiationdetectorconceptcapableofdistinguishinggammaraysandneutronswhilepotentiallyprovidingdirectionalinformationforsecurityinspectionsandemergencyresponseistheobjectiveofanotherLDRDproject.Theprojectfocusedonhighdetectionefficiencyradiationdiscriminationsourcedirectionandminiaturizationbyexploitingtheexceptionallyhighneutroncapturecapabilitiesofthenaturallyoccurringstableisotopesofgadoliniumproject12-092.Advancedradiationdetectionapproachesincludelong-lengthscintillatingfberbundlesletandusinggadoliniumgreenandblueplotsabovewhichhasexceptionallyhighneutroncapturecapabilitiescomparedwithcommonneutrondetectionmaterialsredplot. 12RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSIndustrialandgridsecurityEstablishingresilientinfrastructuresthatoperatewhensensorsandphysicalassetsareperturbedisanimportantnationalobjective.TworelatedLDRDprojectscreatedstate-of-the-arttechnologytoaddressthisgoal.ThefirsthelpsenablearesilientelectricpowergridmonitoringsystemthatisapplicabletotheSmartGridwheremanydeployedsensorsmaybesubjecttooff-normalevents.TheResilientConditionAssessmentMonitoringReCAMSystemenablesgracefuldegradationasopposedtocollapseundernaturalormalicioussensormalfunctioning.ThesecondprojecttheResilientMonitoringAdaptationandControlReMACSystememphasizescontrolstrategiesbyextendingandintegratingtheReCAMachievementsandmonitoringtechnologiesdevelopedbyPurdueUniversity.SpecificallyReMACdevelopscompanionmethodsforaddressingcontrollabilityandstabilitychallengesofthesesystemsprojects10-03712-082.SuccessStoryTransformingindustrialcontrolsystemstobethreat-resilientisthegoalofINLsInstrumentationControlsandIntelligentSystemsICISDistinctiveSignature.ICISanticipatesemergingchallengesassociatedwiththenationscriticalinfrastructureincludingitsutilitygridandcommunicationnetworks.Themultidisciplinaryteamofresearchersanduniversitiesestablishedin2007thrivesonafocusedresearchstrategyofLDRDprojects.Controlsystemswithinherentresiliencycancontinueoperatingevenwhencyberorphysicalattackscompromisespecifcsensorsineitherthecybernetworkorthephysicalnetwork. INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012CybersecurityPreviouscybersecurityevaluationsanddesignswereoftendependentuponpersonalexperienceandlimitedempiricalevidence.AnLDRDprojectfocusedoncybersecurityvulnerabilitypredictiondiscoveryandmitigationisestablishingfoundationalscienceandanexperimentalbasisintheseareaswhicharenotablyabsentinmanycurrentevaluationsandtechnologies.Researchersstudiedthemisclassificationofsoftwarebugsasnotvulnerabilitiesanddemonstratedthatthenumberofmisclassifiedbugswassignificant.Theprojectalsofurthereddevelopmentofanautomatedbugclassifiertohelpsoftwaredevelopmentandmaintenanceteamsmoreaccuratelyidentifythosebugslikelytobevulnerabilitiesproject11-042.ICIShasuniquelydenedresilienceforcontrolsystemsandinfrastructurewhichhasnowbecomeanationallycriticalRDpriority.TamerBaarUniversityofIllinoisprofessorandchairmanoftheICISexternaladvisoryreviewboard13 14RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSStrongerarmormaterialsAdvancedarmormaterialsformilitaryandsecurityvehiclesmustbehardlightweightandrobust.Althoughadvancedceramicsoffersufficienthardnessatafractionoftheweightofsteelsmostarebrittleandcannotwithstandmultipleimpacts.AnLDRDprojectfocusesonfourmaterialtechnologiesthatcouldsolvethesechallengesBainiticAlternateArmorSteelferroelectricFEcrystalfordefeatofshaped-chargedevicesdualhardnesstitaniumandsparkplasmasinteringofsiliconcarbide.Researchersaimtoprovetechnologicalfeasibilitybyevaluatingandcharacterizingmaterialpropertiesalongwithnewsynthesisandpreparationmethodsthatwillbedeployableasfull-scaleproductionprocessesproject11-060.ComparisontestingofavarietyofarmormaterialsrevealedthatFEcrystalsT-XandT-Zoerbetterdepth-of-penetrationDOPprotection.LDRDproject11-078supportedthedoctoralresearchofJuanDeatonright.90.0N-X80.070.060.050.040.030.020.010.000.0veragenormaizeytargetmateriaensityN-ZN-Z2T-XT-ZT-Z2GSiC INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012WirelessspectrumoptimizationWithapredicted300-MHzspectrumdeficitformobilewirelessbroadbandby2014thenationalneedforefficientradiospectrumusehasneverbeenmoreurgent.ThisLDRDprojectanalyzesthearchitecturaleffectsandbenefitsofusingTVwhitespacesincellularnetworks.Resultswerepublishedintheprestigious2012InternationalSymposiumonNewFrontiersinDynamicSpectrumAccessNetworksDySPANandpatentapplication13286434wasfiledfortheSpectrumAccountabilityframework.TheseresultswillbeusefulforthecellularstandardscommitteesandtheFederalCommunicationsCommissionforstandardizationandregulationsrespectivelyproject11-078.SuccessStoryAnotherLDRD-fundedwirelesscommunicationtechnologynowisdirectlyfundedbytheU.S.DrugEnforcementAgency.WirelessSpectrumCommunicationsWSCommhasearnedseveralinnovationawards.Readmoreonpg.23.15 16RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSGenerationTechnologyLoadEnergyStorageSystemsTransmissionLineRenewablepowerintegrationAsthenationstrivestoachievelong-termenergysecurityelectricutilitiesareincorporatingincreasingamountsofintermittentanddistributedrenewableelectricpowerintheformofwindandsolargeneration.Howeverpowergeneratedbythesesourcescanbehighlyvariableandunpredictableithasrandomcomponentsinthehourlydailyandseasonaltimescales.AnLDRDprojectcreatedtheModelforElectricGridStrategiesMEGSwhichcansimulatehownewtechnologiesmayimpactgridstability.MEGSusesahybridmodelingtechniquetosimulateboththeeffectsofcomplexloadmanagementstrategiesovermultipletimescalesandthecontributionofindividualconsumerbehaviortothepowergridsoperationalneedsproject10-073.EvaluatinghowenergystoragetechnologiescouldhelpintegraterenewableandhybridenergyresourcesintotheelectricpowergridisthegoalofanotherLDRDproject.Manystoragetechnologiesworkedwellatsmallscalesandfornicheapplicationsbutenergydensitypowerdensityandcapitalcostissuesremainchallenging.Theprojectstudiedintegrationofgenericvariablegenerationintoasimplifiedgridandintroducedenergystoragesystemsnearthegenerationandloadcenterstoassessenergystoragecostsandbenefitsproject11-007. 17INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012TransmissionlinesitingOneDOEmissionistoensureareliableelectrictransmissioninfrastructurethatsatisfiesmyriadstakeholders.Newhigh-voltageelectricitytransmissionlinesmustbebuiltacrosstheWesternregiontomeetincreasingdemand.UtilitycompaniesandplannerstypicallyuseGeographicInformationSystemGIS-basedsoftwaretoolstohelpcharacterizethelandscapethattransmissionlinesmusttraverse.Howeverinitialproposalsfortransmissionlineroutescanbreedintenseoppositionwhenpublicopinionisnotincludedinsitingdecisions.AnLDRDprojectdevelopedanopen-sourceGIS-baseddecisionsupporttoolcalledLineSiterwhichoptimizesrouteselectionsbyintegratinggeospatialdatawithpublicopinionandothersocio-politicalconstraintinformation.LineSiterwasdevelopedincollaborationwithBoiseStateUniversityandIdahoStateUniversityaspartoftheCenterforAdvancedEnergyStudiesatINLproject10-079.SuccessStoryDOEsSunshotInitiativetomakesolarenergymorecost-competitiveawardedresearchfundingtotheteambehindproject10-079andLineSiter.Thegrantfundsdevelopmentofanopen-sourceGeographicInformationSystemtoolthatidentiespotentialsolarutilitysitesbyquantifyingnaturalresourcesphysicalconstraintsandscienticmeasuresofsocialriskandpublicacceptanceofspecicsites. 18RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSEnergyandresourcemanagementDOEsEnergy-WaterNexusprogramisfocusedonunderstandingthelinkagesbetweenenergydevelopmentandwaterconsumption.Currentenergyplanningapproachesdonotaccountfortheinterplaybetweenenergyandwaterdevelopment.AnLDRDprojectdevisedacreativesolutionintheformofasimulationframeworkthatincludesthesystem-levelfeedbacksbetweenlong-termelectricityplanningmetricsandlong-termwaterplanningmetrics.TheWaterandEnergySystemsToolWESTwasdemonstratedintheSnakeRiverBasinandcancreateimmersivestakeholder-inclusivesimulationstoaddressquestionsaboutlong-termenergy-watermanagementstrategies.Thesesimulationscanbesharedtocreateaforumforenergyandwatersystemmanagementthatbetterincorporateshumanresponsetodriversofchangeproject10-065.DairybioenergyValuableenergyproductscanbemadefromdairymanure.HowevercurrentmanuremanagementstrategiesdontfullyrecovervaluableorganicmatterandareineffectiveinhandlinggreenhousegasGHGemissionsorremovingnutrients.Focusingonmaximumresourcerecoveryfrommanurecouldsimultaneouslyproducemultiplehigh-valuecommoditieswhileaddressingenvironmentalconcerns.AnLDRDprojectsupportedbymorethanadozenoff-campusuniversitystudentsstudiedtwonovelprocessesforoptimizingconversionofIdahodairymanureintoenergyproducts.Thefirstprocessmaximizedconversiontomethanewhilethesecondsequesteredanaerobicdigestionemissionstoproducelipid-richalgaethatcanbeconvertedtobiofuels.AlifecycleanalysisofthesystemrevealedsignificantGHGreductionproject10-080.Focusingonmaximumresourcerecoveryfrommanurecouldsimultaneouslyproducemultiplehigh-valuecommoditieswhileaddressingenvironmentalconcerns. 19INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012SuccessStoryBothDepartmentofDefenseneedsandDOEgoalsareadvancedbyanLDRD-fundedefforttoimprovethechemicalreactionsthatconvertsynthesisgasamixtureofcarbonmonoxideandhydrogentosyntheticfuels.TheworkhasledtoaninventiondisclosurerecordandCooperativeResearchandDevelopmentAgreement.FossilfuelsynthesisTheabilitytoconvertsignificantquantitiesofcarbondioxideCO2directlytofuelsislimitedbecauseCO2itselfinhibitskineticsnecessitatingdevelopmentofnewcatalysts.AcatalystdevelopedandcharacterizedinanLDRDprojectdrivesfuelcreationfromdomesticproductssuchasbiomasswastenaturalgasandcoal.Researcheffortsalsodiscoveredthathydrocarbonsinthejetfuelmolecularweightrangewerethepredominantproductproject11-031. RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTS20SustainablefrackingAsindustrytapsunconventionalenergyresourcesDOEcanhelpidentifyandmitigaterisksofnewextractionapproaches.ForexamplerecoveryofthevastunconventionalfossilfuelresourcesintheMountainWestwillrequiresignificantamountsofwater.ExtractionintherapidlyexpandingBakkenFormationreliesheavilyonhydraulicfracturingwhichraisesconcernsaboutartesianaquifersthathavehistoricallysupportedgrazingandagriculture.AnLDRDprojectaimstoaddresstheserisksasBakkenextractionproceedswestward.ItisevaluatingthewaterneedsfortheeasternMontanaBakkendevelopmentcharacterizinggroundwaterresourcesidentifyingkeyareaswheredevelopmentmaybewater-limitedanddevelopinganapproachforoptimizingwaterusage.Incorporatingwaterimpactsintodrillingplandesignsmayreducenegativewaterimpactstomanageablelevelsproject12-108. 21INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012HybridenergysystemsIntegratedenergysystemscouldimprovefossilresourceutilizationreducegreenhousegasemissionsandstabilizerenewableenergycontributions.Thesehybridsystemscandivertresourcesduringperiodsoflowelectricaldemandbydynamicallyalteringtheirproductionmodetodeliverpowerheatorchemicalproducts.OneLDRDprojectisalaboratory-scaledemonstrationofsyntheticfuelsynfuelproductionrelevanttohybridsystems.Thetestbedcansynthesizeliquidmethanolanultra-cleansyntheticfuelandfuelfeedstock.Thecapabilityprovidesatestbedforkeyprinciplesincluding1remoteconversionofelectricityandcarbon-basedresourcesintosynfuels2technicalandeconomicfeasibilityofamodulardeployableenergyconversionsystemand3remotemonitoringandcontrolusingareal-timesystemproject10-059. 22AWARDSANDRECOGNITIONAWARDSANDRECOGNITIONDEREKGASTONTheINLcomputationalmathematicianwasoneof96recipientsofthe2012PresidentialEarlyCareerAwardforScientistsandEngineers.TheawardisthehighesthonortheU.S.governmentbestowsonearlycareerscienceandengineeringprofessionals.AstheComputationalFrameworksGroupleadforINLsFuelsModelingandSimulationDepartmentDerekleddevelopmentoftheMOOSEsimulationframeworkwhichwasLDRD-fundedandunderliesseveralcurrentLDRDprojectsprojects11-061and10-017.Discoveriesinscienceandtechnologynotonlystrengthenoureconomytheyinspireusasapeople.Theimpressiveaccomplishmentsoftodaysawardeessoearlyintheircareerspromiseevengreateradvancesintheyearsahead.PresidentBarackObamaonPresidentialEarlyCareerAchievementAwards 23INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012HUSSEINMORADIThecommunicationssystemsexpertleddevelopmentoftheLDRD-fundedWirelessSpectrumCommunicationsWSCommtechnology.Itidentifiesandutilizesavailablespacesintheradiofrequencyspectrumaddressingcontinuedcommercialexpansionwhilesimultaneouslyservingtheneedsofnationalsecuritypublicsafetyandothercrucialnext-generationcommunicationsystems.DevelopedinpartincollaborationwithUniversityofUtahresearchersitwonRD100FarWestFederalLaboratoryConsortiumandIdahoInnovationawards.WSCommalsoearnedtheBestDemonstrationawardatthe2012DySpanConferenceIEEEsInstituteofElectricalandElectronicsEngineersleadinginternationalconferencededicatedtoadvancingcutting-edgewirelesstechnologiesproject10-075.ERINSEARCYThebioenergytechnicalandanalyticalexpertinINLsBiofuelsandRenewableEnergyTechnologiesDepartmentisonaspecialone-yearassignmentatDOEheadquartersworkingattheOfficeofBiomassProgram.ErinissupportingtheofficesFeedstockPlatformbyhelpingestablishtechnicaltargetsandprogressmetricsdevelopingandexecutingkeyprogramworkshopsandassistingwithtechnicalinquiriesworkinggroupsandroundtables.ErinisprincipalinvestigatoronanLDRDprojectfocusedondairybioenergyproject10-080. 24WaterlooCanadaLocationsofuniversitycollaborationsMembersofINLsNuclearUniversityConsortiumMembersofIdahoUniversityConsortiumINLCOLLABORATIONSUNIVERSITYCOLLABORATIONSUNIVERSITYCOLLABORATIONSOf118LDRDprojectsfundedinFY2012nearlytwo-thirds75projectsinvolveuniversitycollaborators.Universitycollaborationsfostercreativityandprovideopportunitiesforacademicresearcherstohelpfindsolutionstonationalchallenges.SuchcollaborationsalsosupportDOEobjectivesfornurturingthenextgenerationofscientistsandengineers.MarseilleFranceManchesterUnitedKingdom 25INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2012MyLDRDprojecthasgivenmetheopportunitytodistinguishmyselfamongmypeersintheradiochemistrycommunity.Itisalsofosteringanewdistance-learninguniversitydegreeprogramforINLfromwhichIwillbetherstgraduate.CatherineRiddleLDRDresearcherandPh.D.candidateSUPPORTINGINLDOCTORALRESEARCHJuanDeatonsdoctoralresearchinvolvedtheLDRDprojectEnablingdynamicspectrumaccessinLongTermEvolutionLTEnetworks.ItisdescribedintheWirelessSpectrumOptimizationhighlightonpg.15project11-078.MelissaTeaguesdoctoralresearchissupportedbyanLDRDprojecttitled2-Dand3-DEBSDTechniqueDevelopmentandMicrostructureReconstructionforPhaseFieldMicrostructureEvolutionModels.ItisdescribedintheStrongerNuclearMaterialshighlightonpg.6project12-031.TheLDRDprojectSpeciationBehaviorofAmericiumOxidationStatesfortheSeparationofAmericiumfromCuriuminNuclearProcessingissupportingCatherineRiddlesdoctoralresearchproject11-005.TheLDRDprojectWaterandEnergySystemInterdependencyModelingforMulticriteriaDecisionAnalysisissupportingRobertJeffersdoctoralresearchwhichisdescribedintheEnergyandResourceManagementhighlightonpg.18project10-065.JohnKoudelkasdoctoralresearchissupportedbyanLDRDprojectthatisusinghigh-performancecomputingandWeb-basedcomputationalframeworkstoimprovesoilparameterestimationandultimatelyenhancerunoffforecastsfromhydrologicmodelsproject12-111.Post-doctoralfellowsEricDufekTravisGrimesJeremyHatchNarasimharaoKondamudiNicholasMcGuireScottThompsonPrabhatTripathyYongfengZhangINTERNSANDPOST-DOCTORALFELLOWSInternsMaximeFournieBradleyFrommBrandiGroverCynthiaHansonRitaHogganMatthewJohnsonSimonOliveAriStavenPaulTalbotMichaelWestHsingtzuWuChaoXu TheLaboratoryDirectedResearchandDevelopmentLDRDprogramatIdahoNationalLaboratoryadvancescutting-edgeresearchandhelpsdevelopstrategiccapabilitiesthatspanthelabsnuclearenergynationalsecurityandenergysecuritymissionareas.WWW.INL.GOVLDRDMoreinformationAnitaGianotto208-526-0551anita.gianottoinl.govDenaTomchak208-526-1590dena.tomchakinl.gov12-5063112-0631