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IdahoNationalLaboratoryANNUALREPORTFY2013OntheCoverScintillatingfiberbundlesforradiationdetection.Moreonpg.1. FROMTHEDIRECTORFROMTHEDIRECTORMarch2014ItismypleasuretopresenttheIdahoNationalLaboratoryINLscalyear2013Laboratory-DirectedResearchandDevelopmentLDRDAnnualReport.Thisreportdemonstratesthetypesofcutting-edgeresearchINLisundertakingtomatureourtechnicalcapabilitiesandhelpensurethenationsenergysecurity.ThisisthesecondyearweveproducedtheLDRDSnapshottohighlighttheprogramsresearchdiversityuniversitycollaborationsmetricsandsuccesses.INLsLDRDProgramisoperatedincompliancewiththeDepartmentofEnergyDOEorder413.2B.ThisworkalignswithINLsstrategicplanandbenetstheDOE.TheprogramsdiverseresearchanddevelopmentemphasizestheDOEOfceofNuclearEnergyDOE-NEmissionwhichencompassesbothadvancednuclearscienceandtechnologyandunderlyingtechnologies.INLsLDRDprogramalsoadvancesthatmissionbyhelpingdeveloptechnicalcapabilitiesnecessarytosupportfutureDOE-NEresearchanddevelopmentneeds.ResearchareasduringFY2013includedadvancedreactormodelingnuclearfuelfabricationimprovementsadvancesforstudyingirradiatedfuelfuelmodelingfuelrecyclingandadvancedradiationdetection.AsamultiprogramnationallaboratoryINLalsoservesthenationthroughtechnologyresearchthatenhanceshomelandsecurity.Theseresearchareasincludewirelesstechnologiescybersecurityelectricgridreliabilitynuclearnonproliferationandexplosivesprotection.INLsisolatedsiteandtestbedinfrastructureareidealforexperimentationanddemonstrationsthathelpprotectthenationsresourcesandadvanceenergysecurity.INLssciencebaseisfurtherstrengthenedbyresearchtoadvancealternativeenergysystemsthatreducegreenhousegasemissionsandbolsterenergysecurity.INLsappliedscienceandreal-worldassessmentsofimprovedenergysystemsandnaturalresourcedevelopmenthelpsecurethecountrysfutureandprotecttheenvironment.ThisyearsLDRDprojectsofferasnapshotofthediversecreativityandexpertiseresidingatINL.Theyofferinnovativeapproachestoscienticquestionsandtechnicalproblems.Inshorttheseprojectshelpthelabmaintainscienticandtechnicalvitalitywhilefosteringcreativityandstimulatingexplorationattheforefrontofscienceandtechnology.IamproudoftheaccomplishmentsandopportunitiesthatINLsLDRDprojectsprovidetothenation.Iencourageyoutotakethetimetoreviewtheseprojectnarrativesandreectontheircontributions.JohnGrossenbacherDirectorIdahoNationalLaboratory 1INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2013TABLEOFCONTENTSIntroductionMissionandmetricsofINLsLDRDprogram...........................2ResearchProjectHighlightsBriefdescriptionsofLDRDprojectsspanningthebreadthofINLsresearchanddevelopmentobjectives...........................4AwardsRecognitionLDRDresearchershonoredinFY2013...............................18UniversityCollaborationsOverviewofLDRDuniversityinteractionsincludingcollaborationsdoctoralresearchprojectsinternsandpost-doctoralfellows..............................................20ProjectsummariesDetaileddescriptionsofallFY2013LDRDprojectsincludingthosereferencedbyprojectnumberinthispublication..............CDonlineOnthecoverStudyoflong-lengthscintillatingberbundlesforradiationdetectionispartofalargerLDRDeffortexploringinnovativemethodsthattranscendtraditionalrelianceonneutronandgammaraysorseektoadaptexistingmeasurementtoolsfornewapplicationsproject11-059ledbyDavidChichester.WritersNicoleStrickerArielConnEditorDenaTomchakGraphicdesignerKristineBurnhamPhotographerChrisMorganPreparedbyIdahoNationalLaboratoryIdahoFallsIdaho83415.ManagedbyBattelleEnergyAllianceLLCfortheU.S.DepartmentofEnergyundercontractDE-AC07-05ID14517.ThisreportwaspreparedasanaccountofworksponsoredbyanagencyoftheUnitedStatesGovernment.NeithertheUnitedStatesGovernmentnoranyagencythereofmakesanywarrantyexpressorimpliedorassumesanylegalliabilityorresponsibilityfortheaccuracycompletenessorusefulnessofanyinformationapparatusproductorprocessdisclosedorrepresentsthatitsusewouldnotinfringeprivatelyownedrights.ReferencehereintoanyspeciccommercialproductprocessorservicebytradenametrademarkmanufacturerorotherwisedoesnotnecessarilyconstituteorimplyitsendorsementrecommendationorfavoringbytheUnitedStatesGovernmentoranyagencythereof.TheviewsandopinionsofauthorsexpressedhereindonotnecessarilystateorreectthoseoftheUnitedStatesGovernmentoranyagencythereof. 2INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTIONTheFY2013LDRDAnnualReportSnapshotprovidesaglimpseofthediverseresearchperformedtodevelopandensurethatINLstechnicalcapabilitiessupportcurrentandfutureDOEandNationalNuclearSecurityAdministrationNNSAmissionsandnationalresearchpriorities.LDRDisessentialprovidingameanstomaintainscientificandtechnicalvitalitybyfundinghighlyinnovativehigh-riskpotentiallyhigh-valueresearchanddevelopmentRD.INLsdiverseLDRDportfolioexploresscientificandengineeringconceptstodeveloptheneedsofDOEsOfficeofNuclearEnergyDOE-NEincludingadvancedreactormodelingnuclearfueladvancesfuelrecyclingandnuclearnonproliferation.INLsLDRDresearchstimulatesexplorationattheforefrontofcybersecurityelectricgridreliabilityandwirelesstechnology.Theforward-lookingnatureofthelaboratorysRDstrengthenstheDOEmissionbyadvancinghybridenergysystemsandevolvingenergysecurityneeds.TheLDRDprogramprovesitsbenefiteachyearthroughnewprogramsintellectualpropertypatentscopyrightsnationalandinternationalawardsandpublications.ItalsoprovidesameanstofeedthepipelinewithscientistsandengineersthroughundergraduateandgraduateinternshipspostdoctoralassignmentsandinternalPh.D.candidates.BENEFITSOFLDRDINLconsistentlyrealizessignificantbenefitsfromtheLDRDprogram.TheFY2013metricsareshownbelow.FY2013LDRDMETRICS2NationalInternationalAwardsCopyrightsx27InventionDisclosuresPatents56RefereedPublications25LicensesINLPostDocs6NewScientificEngineeringHires1INLStudents16INLsLDRDportfolioexploresscienticandengineeringconceptstostimulateexplorationattheforefrontofnuclearenergynationalandhomelandsecurityandenergysecurity. 3INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2013THELDRDPROCESSATINLINLsolicitsideasforLDRDprojectsthroughanannualcallforproposals.Thecalltakesintoconsiderationtheneedtosupportkeytechnicalcapabilitydevelopmentcollaborationwithuniversityandindustrypartnersandcrucialresearchthatincludesenablingorcrosscuttingscience.Thesesolicitationsencourageinnovativeapproachesproposedbyindividualresearchersorsmallmultidisciplinaryteams.Thecallforproposalsincludesarequirementforapre-proposalfollowedbyafullwrittenproposalatechnicalpeerreviewandamanagementreviewpriortoprojectselection.Theintentofthepre-proposalprocessistoprovideprincipalinvestigatorstheopportunitytobrieflyarticulateanideapriortoinvestingtimeandefforttowriteafullproposal.Theprincipalinvestigatorsonselectedprojectsthensubmitafulldetailedproposalwhichissubjecttotechnicalpeerreviewandmanagementreview.AdatasheetforselectedprojectsisprovidedtoDOEsIdahoOperationsOfficeDOE-IDforconcurrence.ThecontinuingandproposednewLDRDprojectsareauthorizedtostartworkattheonsetofthenewfiscalyearfollowingreceiptofDOE-IDsconcurrenceandapprovalbyDOE-NEoftheannualLDRDProgramPlan.FY2013LDRDPROGRAMSTATISTICS22052dollarsK90projects910dollarsK40dollarsKTOTALLDRDPROGRAMCOSTTOTALLDRDPROJECTSLARGESTPROJECTALLOCATIONSMALLESTPROJECTALLOCATION13043STAFFMEMBERSSUPPORTEDBYLDRDFUNDINGLDRDFUNDINGGOINGTONEWSTAFFREPORTORGANIZATIONThisreportconsistsoftheFY2013AnnualReportSnapshotPartIandindividualLDRDprojecthighlightsPartIIviaCDandonlineatwww.inl.govLDRD.TheSnapshotbeginswithresearchhighlightsthatexemplifythediversityofscientificandengineeringresearchperformedatINLinFY2013followedbysectionssummarizingFY2013awardsandrecognitionresultingfromLDRDfundingaswellasuniversitycollaborationsutilizingLDRDfunding.PartIICDincludesindividualprojectsummarieswithageneraldescriptionoftheprojectasummaryofthescientificortechnicalprogressachievedduringthelifeoftheprojectabriefstatementdescribinghowtheprojectbenefitedtheDOENNSAmissionsandrelevantpeer-reviewedpublicationsandpresentations.TheCDalsoincludesappendicesacronymlistauthorindexandprojectrelevancetoDOEprogramofficesthatmaybeusefultoreaders. 4PROJECTHIGHLIGHTSRESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSNuclearplantsafetyanalysisNuclearenergyplantsareengineeredwithlayeruponlayerofsafetysystems.Riskanalystsstudysuchsystemstoassesstheprobabilitiesofdifferentaccidentscenariosandensureamplesafetymargins.Assophisticatedsimulationsbeganaidingtheseeffortsthevolumeofdatahassoared.ThisLDRDprojecthelpsanalystsextractusefulinformationaboutthemostrelevanttrendsandthelikelytimingandprogressionofevents.Specificallytheresearchteamcreatednewmethodologiesandalgorithmsforsafetyanalysiscodesalongwithnewvisualanalysistechniquestohelpanalystsmorefullyexploretheuncertaintiesinasimulation.Suchinformationcouldhelpdesignersregulatorsandoperatorsbetterunderstandhowasystemwillbehaveduringaccidentconditionsproject11-076.MultiscalenuclearreactorsimulationModelingandsimulationhasthepotentialtogreatlyacceleratenuclearmaterialsandreactorresearch.Traditionalapproachestobuildingausefulsimulationcapabilityrequiredsoftwaredeveloperstoworkforyearswithscientiststodescribeagivenphenomenon.INLsMOOSETheMOOSEdevelopmentteamincludesfromleftDavidAndrsCodyPermannAndrewSlaughterRichardMartineauDerekGastonJohnPetersonandJasonMiller.SuccessStoryLDRDinitiallyfundedtheHumanSystemSimulationcapabilitywhichsupportsstudiesofhumanresponsestonormalandemergencysituationsincontrolroomsandotherenvironmentswhereoperatorsinteractwithcomplextechnology.TherecongurablecapabilitytherstofitskindintheU.S.fostersadvancedresearchtestingandvalidationusingbothgenericandplant-specicmodelsfromindustrypartnersproject11-062. 5INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2013MultiphysicsObjectOrientedSimulationEnvironmentenablessimulationtoolstobedevelopedwithafractionoftheresourcespreviouslyrequired.WithsupportfromLDRDfundingMOOSEhasnowdemonstratedthefoundationforstate-of-the-artfull-corereactorsimulation.ThisprojectaddscapabilityenablingMOOSEtosimultaneouslymodelmultiplecoupledphysicalsystems.Forexamplereactorfluidflowtemperaturechangesfissionphysicsandfuelsperformanceallimpacteachother.Simultaneousmodelingmakesitpossibletosimulateafull-corereactorovermultipleoperatingcycles.Theworklaysthefoundationforresearchthatcouldenhancedesignandoperationofnuclearfuelsandreactorsproject13-097.AnotherLDRDprojectaimstorefinethesimplifyingapproximationsoffissionphysicsusedfortheinitialfull-coresimulations.Theteamisworkingtocreateahighlyaccurateneutronicsmodelthatcombinesmodelingrigorwithlowerorderapproximationsthatprovideaccuracywithoutoverwhelmingcomputingresources.Thegoaldevelopa3-Dcoupled-physicsmodelforINLsone-of-a-kindAdvancedTestReactor.TheachievementwouldleadtosmarterATRexperimentdesignandfuelusagehelpimprovesafetymarginsanddemonstratetheabilitytocreateaccuratemultiphysicsmodelsofbothcommercialandnext-generationreactorsproject13-115.SuccessStoryTheMOOSEsimulationcapabilityhasLDRDfundingatthecoreofitsinceptionandadvancements.MOOSEsachievementshaveimpactedfundingdecisionsfromnationalprogramssuchasDOEsNuclearEnergyAdvancedModelingandSimulationNEAMSprogramanditsConsortiumforAdvancedSimulationofLightWaterReactorsCASL.MOOSEalsohasinspiredpartnershipswithWestinghouseandGE.TheBISONdevelopmentteamincludesfromleftGiovanniPastoreRichardWilliamsonRichardMartineauJasonHalesBenjaminSpencerDaniellePerezandStephenNovascone. 6RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSNuclearfuelmodelingFracturinginceramicnuclearfuelinfluencesitsthermalandmechanicalbehaviorunderbothnormalandabnormalconditions.Empiricalmodelsthatapproximatetheexpansionofthefracturedfuelaretypicallyusedinfuelperformancesimulationsbutthesemodelshavealimitedrangeofapplicability.TwofracturemodelingtechniquestheextendedfiniteelementmethodXFEMandthediscreteelementmethodDEMcanmodelarbitraryfractureandfragmentation.ThisLDRDprojectappliesthosetechniquestonuclearfuelperformancemodelingviatheMOOSE-basedBISONcode.Byaccountingforfractureusingphysically-basedmodelsthisworkwillstrengthentheabilitytopredictfuelbehaviorparticularlyinabnormalconditionsproject13-071.Anotherprojectexploreshowradiationdamageleadstoswellingembrittlementandchangesinmaterialpropertiessuchaselasticity.Researchersaredevelopingamultiscalefuelperformancemodelthatbridgesatomicandmacroscales.ToextendanexistingmultiscaleframeworkdevelopedunderapreviousLDRDtotheatomicscaleitimplementsthephasefieldcrystalPFCmodelintoINLsMOOSE-basedSimulationdatafromtheBISONfuelperformancecodecanbevisualizedinaComputer-AssistedVirtualEnvironmentCAVE. 7INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2013StudyingfuelduringirradiationTraditionalradiationexperimentsplaceamaterialsampleinsideanuclearreactorirradiatethesampleforasetperiodoftimethentakeitoutandexamineit.Samplesirradiatedforlongerorshorterperiodsshouldshowacorrespondingamountofchanges.Withenoughdataaroughpictureemergesofhowsuchchangesevolve.Thatdatacaninformcomputermodelsandsimulationsthatapproximatetheprogression.ThisLDRDprojectisinvestigatingthepossibilityofmonitoringtheprocessinrealtimewhilesamplesareinsideareactor.TheresearchersfoundthatitshouldbepossibletogetsufficientirradiationandscanningelectronmicroscopedataforsamplesresidinginanunusedspaceadjacenttotheTransientReactorTestTREATFacilityreactorvessel.Thiswouldprovidereal-timedataaboutthedynamicsofnuclearfuelsduringthefirstseveralhoursofirradiationproject13-121.MARMOTcode.Thatcodemodelsintermediate-scalemesoscaledefectevolutionandtheresultingchangeinmaterialproperties.CouplingtheresultingmodeltoBISONwillcreateafirst-of-its-kindmultiscalecapabilitythatbridgestheatomictothemacroscale.Byprovidingabetterfundamentalunderstandingofmechanismsoccurringduringtheearlystagesofirradiationthisprojectcouldinformdesignofnuclearfuelsandmaterialswithenhancedaccidenttoleranceproject13-050.AdvancedreactorfuelNationscouldreducetheinventoryofnuclearwastebymakingelectricityfromsomeofthemostlong-livedelementsinusedorspentnuclearfuel.Butfirstscientistswouldliketobetterunderstandthephysicalpropertiesofultra-highburn-upmixedoxidenuclearfuel.ThisLDRDprojectcombinedtheMOOSEBISONMARMOTfuelperformancemodelingcodeswithINLsone-of-a-kindcapabilitiesformicroscopicexaminationofirradiatedmaterials.Specificallytheresearchersusedatomprobetomographytoanalyzemixedoxidefuelcontainingsimulatedfissionproductsthefirsteversuchanalysisonplutonium-bearingmaterial.CombiningthedatawithINLsfuelperformancemodelingcodeswillenhancefundamentalunderstandingandmodelingofnuclearfuelperformanceproject13-023.INLhasone-of-a-kindcapabilitiesformicroscopicexaminationofirradiatedmaterialstopandcouldsoonaddtheabilitytocollectmicroscopicdataduringirradiationattheTransientReactorTestTREATfacilityatINLcoreschematicabove. RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSImprovedfuelfabricationManyreactorsworldwidegenerateelectricityusingceramic-basedfuelsanduraniumoxideUO2-basedfuelpelletsareamongthemostcommon.INLresearchpreviouslyfocusedonmetal-basedfuelsshowingthemtobepassivelysafeinfastreactorsandlesscomplicatedtofabricatecomparedtooxideandotherceramicfuels.AnLDRDteamhasdevelopedaprocessingtechniquewhichresultedinimprovedphysicalandchemicalpropertiesofthegranulescomprisingUO2-basedfuelpellets.Thisledtomoreefficientmethodsofpackinggranulesintopelletsandhomogeneouslypressinganddensifyingthepellets.Thescientistshavebegunapplyingwhattheylearnedaboutthepropertiesoftheceramicpelletstodevelopfuelthatismoreaccidenttolerantproject11-051.RecyclingfromadvancedfuelOnepromisingtypeofadvancednuclearfuelconsumesuraniummoreefficientlythancurrenttechnologyandhasbuilt-insafetyfeatures.Layersofcarbonandsiliconcarbidecoatthepoppy-seed-sizedtristructuralisotropicTRISOparticlesandactastheprimarycontainmentforfissionproducts.MethodsfortreatingusedTRISOfuelshavenotbeendevelopedandthisLDRDprojectstudiedthefeasibilityofusingsupercriticalcarbondioxideSc-CO2technology.BecauseSc-CO2possessesbothgas-andliquid-likepropertiesitcanpenetrateporousmaterialsanddissolveconstituentsinasolidmatrix.ThisenablesSc-CO2toremovespecificelementsdirectlyfromsolidanddenselypackedmaterialssuchascrushedTRISOfuel.Thiscreatesthepossibilityforrecyclingfissionablematerialswithouttheneedtodissolvefuelinacidproject11-006.8INLscientistBruceMincherisprincipalinvestigatoronaprojectstudyingtreatmentofTRISOfuelparticlesbelow. INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2013RadiationdetectionSophisticatedradiationdetectiontechnologiescanhelpofficialsenforcenuclearnonproliferationtreatiesidentifysuspectmaterialsorinvestigateterroristactivity.SeveralLDRDprojectsarehelpingenhancedetectioncapabilities.Oneprojectisusingamoderate-energyphotonbeamtoinduceemissionsignaturesthatcanrevealaninspecteditemscontents.Thisextendedimagingcapabilitywouldenableinspectorstoquicklyidentifythelocationandisotopiccompositionofsuspectitemsproject12-054.Inspectorsandinvestigatorsneedtobeabletodetectspecificfissionproductsatverylowlevels.AsecondLDRDprojectdevelopedandqualifiedfissionproductstandardsthatcanbeusedtocalibratesensitivedetectiondevices.Bysynthesizingprecisemixturesofspecificshort-livedisotopestheprojectfillsaneedforcalibrationstandardsinthetreatymonitoringandnuclearforensicscommunitiesproject13-092.AthirdLDRDprojectcouldspurdevelopmentofnewdetectorsanddetectionsystems.Theworkbolstersconfidenceinamodelingtoolforthenonproliferationcommunity.ThenewcomertheGEANT4simulationtoolkitcountsamongitsassetsextremeflexibilityandastronghistoryinthehigh-energyphysicsdiscipline.ThisprojectdemonstratedrobustagreementbetweenGEANT4andthetrustedMonteCarloN-ParticleMCNPfamilyofcodes.Suchunderstandingcanimprovevalidationandbenchmarkingduringdevelopmentofnewdetectiontechnologiesproject12-073.MeasuringneutronuxEngineerstestnewnuclearfuelsandmaterialsbysubjectingthemtothehigh-radiationenvironmentinsideresearchreactorssuchasINLsAdvancedTestReactor.ResearcherscanestimatehowmuchneutronradiationasamplereceivesbutdifferenttestareasinsideATRexperiencedifferinglevelsoffastandslowneutrons.Developingawaytomonitorreal-timeneutronfluxforindividualexperimentsisthegoalofthisLDRDproject.Theresearchteamisevaluatingtheperformanceofthin-filmdiamondsemiconductorradiationdetectorsthatmaybesuitedforuseinhigh-neutronenvironments.Comparedtoexistingtechnologyitmaybesmallermorecost-effectiveandabletoprovidesimultaneousinformationaboutslowandfastneutronsproject12-062.SuccessStoryLDRDfundedworkunderlyingaprojectthatearnedrecognitionfromtheU.S.DepartmentofEnergysInnovationsinFuelCycleResearchawardprogram.FirstprizeintheAdvancedFuelscompetitionwasawardedtothepaperdescribingamethodformeasuringfuelthermalconductivityduringirradiationproject09-007.TheNuclearRadiologicalActivityCenterNRACatINLoersanideallocationfortestingortrainingwithnewradiationdetectiontechnologies.9 10RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSEnergeticmaterialignitionEnergeticmaterialssuchasfireworksormaterialsusedforweldingorcuttingmetalrequireignitiontriggersthatneedtoproducealotofheatquickly.Suchmaterialsrequirecarefulhandlingsotheyarentsetoffunexpectedlybyenvironmentalfactorssuchasstaticelectricity.ThisLDRDprojectresultedinanadditivethatcanmakebothenergeticmaterialsandignitiontriggerslesspronetoaccidentalignitionduetostaticelectricityyetstillbeeffectiveforitsintendedpurpose.TheprojecthasresultedintwopatentapplicationsandcollaborationwithTexasTechUniversitythathelpedenhancesafetyproceduresproject12-066.SuccessStoryAnLDRDprojecttodevelopnovelarmormaterialsrighthasresultedinseveralinventiondisclosures.Theprojectdevelopedacost-effectiveprocesstofabricatearmor-gradeceramicandanewprocessmethodtomanufacturehigh-hardnessarmorsteel.TheresearchsuccessesarearesultofcollaborationsacrossINLincludingtheCenterforAdvancedEnergyStudiesandtheLDRD-developedcapabilitiesontheexplosivestestrangeproject11-060.StudyinggeomagneticdisturbancesWhensolarstormsabovecreateGroundInducedCurrentstheyhavethepotentialtodamagepowergridtransformersandthreatenreliableenergydistribution.Previouslyutilitycompanieshadtorelyonmodelsandtheoriestomitigatepossibleeffects.NowINLs138kVtransmissiongridletsresearcherstracktheimpactsofsuchgeomagneticdisturbances. INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2013levelsofstateawarenessamongtheoperatorswiththeresultbeingmoreeffectivedecision-makinginthefaceofvariouspotentialsituationsproject12-121.Anotherwaytoimproveoperatingproceduresmaybetoremovethehumanelementaltogether.AsecondLDRDprojectlookedatincreasingtheautonomyofMicrogridswhicharesmalllocalelectricgridslikethoseusedbyuniversitiesandmilitarybases.Itisnotcost-effectivetostaffsuchsmallgridsbutcurrentMicrogriddesignslackself-governingcapabilities.Theteamdevelopedacontrolsystemcalledahierarchicalmultiagentdynamicsystemthatissemi-autonomousandadaptivetorapidlychangingconditions.ThoughthisprojectfocusedonMicrogridstheframeworkcanbeappliedtoprovideincreasedindependencetovariouscriticalinfrastructurecontrolsystemsproject12-089.BycorrelatingsolarstormactivitywithdatafromtheINLpowergridscientistscanmonitoranyproblematiceffectsofgroundinducedcurrents.ThisabilitytounderstandandpredictpotentialproblemswillbenefitnationalutilitycompaniesandhelpensureconsistentenergysuppliestoU.S.militaryinstallationsforeignanddomesticproject13-118.GridsecurityandresilienceSecurityrisksassociatedwithnetworkedcontrolsystemssuchasaSmartGridcanbesignificantlyimpactedbyhumaninteraction.OneLDRDprojectexploredhowestablishingcleargoalsfortheinteractionbetweenhumanoperatorsandcontrolsystemscanallowoperatorstorespondmorecalmlyandefficientlytonaturalormaliciousevents.TheteamdevelopedmetricsandmodelstotestandimproveSuccessStoryNewmetricsfortechnically-basedcyberthreatanalysisoriginallydevelopedunderLDRDinvestmentsweredevelopedandthenintegratedintoINLsMissionSupportCentervulnerabilityanalysismethodstobetterpredictdetectandrespondtocyberthreatstoournationscriticalinfrastructure.TheresultisaninnovativeTechnicalAnalysisDoctrinethatisattractingnewprogramsandinuencingnationalcybersecuritypolicy.11TheReal-TimeDataSimulatoratINLsupportsstudiesofhownewtechnologiesaectpowergriddynamicsandhowgroundinducedcurrentsfromsolarstormscouldaectordamagepowergrids. RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSSmartenergyusageHybridenergysystemscouldcombinemultipleenergysourcestomaximizeefficiency.Forexamplerenewableenergyrequiresareliablebackupsuchasnuclearenergywhichcouldprovidetheheatrequiredtocreatebiofuelsorextractpetroleumproducts.Suchsystemsareideallysuitedtoenhancethenationsenergysecuritywhileminimizingemissionconcerns.OneLDRDprojectisestablishingscientificandengineering-basedcomputationalcapabilitiestodesignanalyzeoptimizeandoperatehybridenergysystemsproject13-065.Onebenefitofsuchsystemswouldbetheabilitytoutilizetheheatfromnuclearenergyplantsforapplicationsthatarenotcurrentlypossible.AsecondLDRDprojectisexploringtheproductionofbiomass-basedtransportationfuelsusingheatfromconventionalwater-cooledreactors.Becausethebiofuelproductionprocessrequireshighertemperaturesthanthoseproducedbyconventionallight-waterreactorstheresearchteamanalyzedfavorablebiomasssourcesandchemicalheatpumpsChHPsthatwouldbeoptimalforthetask.Nexttheresearcherswillcollectdatafromalab-scaleprototypefollowedbyadesignandeconomicstudyproject13-107.AthirdLDRDprojectalsofocusesonusingtheheatfromnuclearreactorsforotherapplications.TheoilshaledepositsinColoradoUtahandWyomingareamongthelargestpotentialsourcesofoilonEarth.Butrecoveringtheseresourcesrequiresvastamountsofheatthatwouldmaketheprocessunsustainableusingconventionalheatsourcessuchasnaturalgas.Ahybridenergysystemanchoredbynuclearenergycouldprovideelectricitytothegridduringpeakusageorwhenrenewablesourcesareunavailable.Whennotneededthenuclearplantselectricityandheatcouldbedivertedtoconvertoilshaletooilandhydrocarbongases.Suchasystemwouldenablethegridtoaccommodatemorerenewableswithouttheassociatedchallengesofrequiringbackuppowerproject13-110.12 INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2013SustainabilityviananotechnologyLEDsandothersolid-statelightingapplicationscurrentlyrelyonRareEarthphosphorsbutsupplyissuesassociatedwithsuchmaterialsareagrowingconcern.INLresearchersarehopingtochangethat.LDRDresearchersatINLhaveshownthathighlyluminescentsemiconductornanomaterialswithtunablelightemissionpropertiescouldprovidemoresustainablelightingalternatives.AnLDRDteamledproof-of-principletestsdemonstratingthatanumberoflight-emittingphosphorsusingsynthesizednanoparticlescouldadvancegreentechnologiesandhavepracticalusesforcommercialindustriesproject12-093.WithconsumerelectronicswasteontheriseINLscientistsarealsoturningtonanotechnologyasameansofremovingandreusingRareEarthelementsandothercriticalenergymaterials.ThisLDRDprojectistestingcompositeagglomeratesofcarbonnanotubesthatcouldbeusedintherecoveryofpreciousmetalsfromhigh-acidliquidwastestreams.Whenthesesolutionswereappliedtoproductssuchascomputerandcellphonecircuitboardsthescientistswereabletoremoveparticlesofgold.Thoughthisresearchfocusedmainlyongoldthegeneraltechnologyprovidesanopportunitytoremoveundesirableproductsfromwaterandrecovervaluablematerialsatthesametimeproject12-056.SuccessStoryLDRDfundinghasbeenpartofadeliberateefforttobuildINLcapabilitiesrelatedtotheseparationandrecoveryofcriticalenergymaterials.ThoseinvestmentspaidoffwhenINLwasnamedasapartnerintheDOEsnewCriticalMaterialsInnovationHubwhichisbeingledbyDOEsAmesLaboratory.13INLresearchscientistPeterZalupskiisprincipalinvestigatoronaprojectstudyingpreciousmetalrecoveryfromwastestreamssuchasconsumerelectronics. 14RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSImprovinglithiumbatteriesImprovementsinboththesafetyandvoltagecapacityoflithium-ionbatterieswillbenecessarytopowertransportationfleetswithelectricity.CurrentlinesofresearchaimtoimproveLi-ionbatterytechnologybutonegroupofLDRDresearchersisexploringanovelapproachusinginorganicmaterials.Inthepastyeartheresearchershavedevelopedalternativeelectrolytesolventsthatsignificantlydecreasebatteryflammabilityandvolatilitydramaticallyimprovingsafetyandperformance.Alsotheyaredevelopingalternativecathodematerialstoimprovebatteryvoltageandoverallperformancewhilefurtherenhancingsafety.Thisuseofinorganicmaterialsisalreadyimprovingthesafetyandlifetimeoflithium-ionbatteriesproject12-118AnotherLDRDteamistakingadifferentapproachtoimprovingconductivityandlifetimeperformanceoflithium-ionbatteries.Theteamusedfirst-principlessimulationsandthermodynamicmodelstoguidethesynthesisofnanostructuredhigh-energyelectrodesandtobetterunderstandthebehaviorofthesenanomaterials.Theultimategoalistodevelopanintegratednanostructurebasisforcelldesignwhichwillusenanomaterialsastheprimarymeansofimprovingcellperformancestabilityandlifetime.ThisworkwillhelpaccelerateINLintellectualpropertyontothelithium-ionbatterymarketinamorecompetitivetimeframeproject12-120.SuccessStoryLDRDinitiatedtheproof-of-principleprojecttoexploreanewefcientcost-effectivewaytoconvertgreasywastewatersuchasfromwatertreatmentplantstobiofuel.TheSupercriticalSolidCatalysttechnologywonnumeroustechnologyawardsin2010includinganRD100Award.ThetechnologyhasbeenlicensedandhasanactiveCooperativeResearchandDevelopmentAgreementtofurtherexploreapplications. INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY201315DrivingforfuelefciencyHeavy-andmedium-sizedtrucksrepresent4percentofallvehiclesyettheyusemorethan20percentofallfuelover22billiongallonsperyear.Mostresearchfocusesonimprovingfuelandenginedesignbutsimplechangesindrivingpracticescanaffectfuelefficiencybyupto30percent.TohelpenactbehavioralchangesLDRDresearcherscreatedasoftwareprogramthattracksenginedataandusesGPStoprovidedriverswithreal-timeperformanceanalysisandoptimal-drivingcuesinadvanceofupcomingterrain.TheytestedthesoftwarewiththedriversofINLsfleetoflargevehiclesandhavecaughttheattentionofmanygovernmentandindustryorganizationsproject11-065.00205040GasPedal6080100100150200Times250300350400 16RESEARCHPROJECTHIGHLIGHTSSafenaturalgasrecoveryAsrecoveryanduseofnaturalgasacceleratescientistsarestudyingwaystoimprovesustainablerecovery.INLscientistsarelookingatthephysicsbehindcouplingfluidflowdeformationandfracturinginshaleformations.Theresearcherscreatedacomputermodelthatcombinestwomethodsforanalyzingparticlesinafluid.Usingthismodeltheresearcherscannowassesscharacteristicsliketheviscosityofthefluidtopredictpatternsoffracture.Theresultsgatheredoverthenextyearwillhelpfillgapsincurrentknowledgeandfundamentalunderstandingofthehydraulicfracturingprocessesproject12-113.ModelingforgeothermalenergyGeothermalenergyisanimportantresourceinthemovementtowardcarbon-freeenergies.Howeverabetterunderstandingofthelifetimeofgeothermalreservoirsisnecessary.OneLDRDprojectusedacombinationofestablishedanalyticalandnumericalmodelingtechniquestocreateanewmodelingtoolforthesepurposes.Thetoolcanbeusedtopredictthelong-termthermalevolutionandenergyproductivityforrealandhypotheticalgeothermalreservoirs.Theteamalsoanalyzedavailabledatatolookatproductivitygiventypicalgeothermaloperationalconstraints.Thisworkwillfillacriticalgapintheindustrysabilitytounderstandandpredicttheeffectsofheatexchangeinfracturedgeothermalreservoirsproject13-068.ResearcherscanviewsubsurfacemodelsusingtheComputer-AssistedVirtualEnvironmentCAVEintheCenterforAdvancedEnergyStudiesCAESatINL. 17INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2013MeanwhilepublicconcernaboutcontaminationofwaterduetohydraulicfracturinghasledanotherLDRDteamtoevaluateimprovingwaterusageduringthefractureprocess.Anewfluiddynamicmodelallowedtheteamtorunsimulationssuggestingthatdifferentlocationsalongthefractureareimportantatdifferenttimesduringwaterandgasdrainage.Thescientistsarenowrunningsimulatedexperimentstoprovidevalidationforthemodel.Thisadvancedunderstandingofwaterusageduringvariousstagesofthefractureprocesscouldultimatelyhelpminimizetheamountofwaternecessarywhichwouldbenefitboththeenvironmentandthegasindustryproject13-114.LDRDresearchersarestudyingwatersaturationrelevanttohydraulicfracturingusingINLsgeocentrifuge. 18AWARDSANDRECOGNITIONAWARDSANDRECOGNITIONMELISSATEAGUEThefuelperformanceanddesignscientistwasrecognizedwiththeYoungScientistAwardattheEuropeanMaterialsResearchSocietyE-MRSSpringSymposiuminStrasbourgFrance.TheawardwaspresentedforherdissertationworkwhichincludedherLDRDresearch.SheearnedherdoctoratefromtheColoradoSchoolofMineswhileworkingfulltimeatINL.ShewasalsooneofadozenwomennationallyhonoredattheMassachusettsInstituteofTechnologysRisingStarsinNuclearScienceandEngineeringSymposium.MelissaisprincipalinvestigatorontwoLDRDprojectsrelatedtomicrostructuralcharacterizationofnuclearfuelperformanceprojects12-031and13-023.Melissahasanobviouspassionfornuclearmaterials.Hertechniqueswillcertainlybecomethestandardforpost-irradiationexaminationanalysisoffuelsusingthesetechniques.BrianGormanInterdisciplinaryMaterialsScienceProgramDirectorColoradoSchoolofMines 19INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2013AARONWILSONTheINLresearcherledateamthatdevelopedSwitchablePolaritySolventForwardOsmosisSPSFOwhichcombinedtwoknownprocessestocreateaninnovativenewwater-filtrationsystemforhighlyconcentratedindustrialwastewater.Thistechnologycanturnwastewaterbackintopotablewatermoreefficientlyandlessexpensivelythanexistingmethods.Theteamwona2013RD100AwardandanOutstandingTechnologyDevelopmentAwardfromtheFederalLaboratoryConsortiumFarWestRegion.LDRDprovidedfundingfortheworkandAaronisprincipalinvestigatoronanotherLDRDprojectprojects10-092and12-096.BENLANGHORSTThematerialsscientistearnedINLsMentoroftheYearAwardforhisworkwithWashingtonStateUniversityundergraduatestudentAndrewRobinson.DuringAndrews10-weekinternshipatINLBenguidedhisworkonanLDRDprojecttocharacterizetheperformancebenefitsofusingpolymersinadvancedlightweightarmortoprotectvehiclesusedbymilitarylawenforcementandemergencyresponders.Andrewsaidtheworkinspiredhimtoexploregraduatedegreeprogramsinthefieldproject12-017. 20WaterlooCanadaLocationsofuniversitycollaborationsMembersofINLsNuclearUniversityConsortiumMembersofIdahoUniversityConsortiumINLCOLLABORATIONSUNIVERSITYCOLLABORATIONSUNIVERSITYCOLLABORATIONSOf90LDRDprojectsfundedinFY2013morethanhalf55projectsinvolveuniversitycollaborators.Theseprojectssupported13undergraduatestudents22mastersdegreecandidatesand55doctoralcandidates.Collaborationsbetweenuniversityandnationallaboratoryresearchersfostercreativityandopportunitiesforacademicscientiststohelpfindsolutionstonationalchallenges.SuchcollaborationsalsosupportDOEobjectivesfornurturingthenextgenerationofscientistsandengineers.MarseilleFranceManchesterUnitedKingdom INLLDRDSNAPSHOTANNUALREPORTFY2013SUPPORTINGINLDOCTORALRESEARCHMelissaTeaguesdoctoralresearchwassupportedbytwoLDRDprojects2-Dand3-DEBSDTechniqueDevelopmentandMicrostructureReconstructionforPhaseFieldMicrostructureEvolutionModelsandCharacterizationandModelingofHighBurn-upMixedOxideFueldescribedintheAdvancedReactorFuelhighlightonpg.7projects12-031and13-023.CatherineRiddlesdoctoralresearchissupportedbytheLDRDprojectSpeciationBehaviorofAmericiumOxidationStatesfortheSeparationofAmericiumfromCuriuminNuclearProcessingproject11-005.TheLDRDprojectEpistemicUncertaintyQuantificationinDynamicProbabilisticRiskAssessmentissupportingJosephNielsensdoctoralresearch.Theprojectisdevelopingnewtoolsforassessingnuclearplantsafetyriskssotheycanbeeffectivelymitigatedproject13-040.JohnKoudelkasdoctoralresearchissupportedbytheLDRDprojectExaminationoftheImpactsonWaterResourcesfromCommercializationofFossilEnergyDevelopmentinanAridWesternBasinUsingIntegratedHydrologicModelingproject13-122.TheLDRDprojectImprovedControlSystemResilienceviaSecureMachineLearningissupportingToddVollmersdoctoralresearchproject13-120.TimMcJunkinsdoctoralresearchissupportedbytheLDRDprojectKnownSecureSensorMeasurementsforDetectingUnauthorizedProcessManipulationandFalsificationofStateproject11-046.Post-doctoralfellowsPritamChakrabortyFarhadFarzbodTravisGrimesWeifengRaoPrabhatTripathyXiaoyuZhangInternsKevinAitonTramBuiAaronButterfieldShaneCarnohanGuyDutechMatthewEllisRitaHogganKaiHuangDerekLaxMaryEllenMincherJackNorbeckJacobPetersonMeganPettiAndrewRobinsonSebastianSchunertMichaelWestINTERNSANDPOST-DOCTORALFELLOWS21 TheLaboratoryDirectedResearchandDevelopmentLDRDprogramatIdahoNationalLaboratoryadvancescutting-edgeresearchandhelpsdevelopstrategiccapabilitiesthatspanthelabsnuclearenergynationalsecurityandenergysecuritymissionareas.WWW.INL.GOVLDRDMoreinformationAnitaGianotto208-526-0551anita.gianottoinl.govDenaTomchak208-526-1590dena.tomchakinl.gov12-5063113-50342